CTD Answers Your Questions About AT!

This webinar is a Q & A session with Center on Technology and Disability (CTD) director Jackie Hess. In this session, Jackie answers both AT questions previously submitted as well as those asked during the live presentation. Topics include relevant laws, classroom practice, AT for libraries, recommended apps, and much more. (Get the PowerPoint presentation in the Download Here box).

Transcript: 

- [Jackie] Well good afternoon and welcome to today's CTD webinar. Usually I'm in the audience with you but today we thought we would do something a little different. We have asked our CTD users to pose questions and today I'm gonna take a shot at answering most of the questions that we received. We have a small, intimate audience today and we know from many past webinars that our participants have a great deal of knowledge to share, experience with specific AT devices and apps and I hope in the course of today's webinar that you'll be as generous as you always are with your information. So, I'm Jackie Hess. I'm the director of the Center on Technology and Disability. Prior to this, I was the director of the Family Center on Technology and Disability and I've been running technology programs that apply to education and/or specifically disability for the past 25 or 30 years. So, which means I only know some of these so we'll see what we can cover today. What I'd like to do is start off with some shared basics. I don't know who's in the audience in terms of whether we have any newbies or whether everybody's has the AT definition memorized. But, for your reviewing ease, I've included here the standard definition for AT as it comes from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which was last amended in 2004, and currently covers all public schools in the U.S. And that definition is, as you may know, is basically any item, whether you buy it off the shelf as is, whether you buy something else and then make a modification to it, or whether you make it from scratch, with which with the growing do it yourself movement we're finding that there's a growing amount of homemade AT. The protections of IDEA extend to children from birth. From birth to three is Part C of IDEA. It does not specifically mention AT but AT is covered under it's discussion of accommodations and then it is specifically mentioned when children start preschool at age four and it covers them through graduation from high school. So, for most students, that's going to be 17 or 18 years old. Although, students with qualified disabilities are allowed to remain in high school until they are 24. As long as you are still in high school, IDEA does apply to you. It does not, and this comes as a big surprise to a lot of people and sometimes a rude awakening, that it does not apply to students in college or in the workforce or just living in the community. So, that the requirements that a school system provide AT to a high school student just drop off a cliff when that same student goes on to college. And, if anybody's interested in transition planning, we can talk about that later. Categories of Disability. I've included this slide here because I'd really like for everyone to think in terms of these functional areas, mobility/motor, sensory, cognitive, communication both expressive and receptive, executive functioning, and emotional/behavioral. Again, at any time, if you have any questions, please just post them in the chat box and I'll keep an eye on that. The reason I'd like for people to think more than we tend to in the field about categories of functional disability is because contrary to popular belief there's not AT for specific disabilities. We're often asked, and you'll see a lot of websites that we'll talk about about AT for autism, AT for cerebral palsy, as well as AT for subjects. And, I have to say, we kinda violated our own recommended practice in this PowerPoint by talking about AT for reading or for math because we do get so many questions about that. But there really isn't AT for a disability or even for a subject. It's AT for a particular challenge and many different disabilities could be responsible for a particular challenge. So, as you'll see in this slide, I've taken as an example difficulties with speaking clearly. So, it doesn't really matter if your inability to be understood when you speak is because of autism, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or even a hardware problem like vocal chord damage. The AT that will help, which falls into the alternative and augmentative communication bin, will help a student or anyone irrespective of what their disability diagnosis is. Now, we received a number of questions that fell into the bin of how accommodations, modification, and AT are related. And that's a very common question and it's very commonly either misunderstood or just not understood. So, we'll take a minute to address that. Accommodations allow students to do the same tasks, participate in the same activities, of the other students in a class. But the changes there have to do with the timing, they may be allowed more for instance to take a test. The setting, they may be allowed to go to a quiet room in which to take a test. The presentation, they may be allowed to have the test items read allowed by a proctor or another trusted adult. The task is the same and they're expected to achieve at the same level but they are given accommodations that might make it easier. For instance, an accommodation might include having a scribe write down the answers if someone has everything in their head and they can articulate it fine but the have a problem functionally with writing. Or it can go the other way, too. So, accommodations, if you think about them, they really don't necessarily have, oops, let me go back. Well, well. They don't necessarily have anything to do with assisted technology. Now, modification does change the standard at which a student is expected to perform. So, there a teacher might modify the assignment. Might offer an easier reading passage or a totally different text that addresses the same content but at a different level. They might give an entirely different test. So, again, there may or may not be AT involved but modification indicates that the standard has been altered as opposed to accommodations where the standard is not altered. Now, AT, when we get to AT, then we're really talking about the devices or the items that allow someone with a disability to accomplish something, to participate in a way that they otherwise couldn't do. So, as I've noted here, and as I think most people know, AT covers a wide range. There is no-tech, and I have a couple of images coming up that will show the range from no-tech to, of course, high-tech. And then there's a range of mid-tech items in between. Now, AT can be used to support accommodations or to support modifications but it is different from either of those. The other thing that a lot of people don't consider is that AT refers not only to the device or the item, the app, the things we usually thing about, but to the services that are needed to use those. So, I've got a slide coming up in a minute that addresses services. But before we leave accommodations, modifications, and AT, I wanted to point out that this particular resource, which is in the CTD library, all of the resources in this PowerPoint are hyperlinked. So, when you see Accommodations, Modifications, and AT, you can click on that and you will go directly to that resource. It was created by one of our partners, PACER Center, and it's short but it covers the things I just mentioned and it gives you a few examples like the one above. So, here where they're acknowledging that the original task was to have a child acknowledge peers, that they come in and to say to them, "Hi, how are you?" The accommodation might be they don't have to get that out as quickly as everybody else. Everybody kinda waits for them. The modification may be you know they're not gonna really be able to say it, but instead they can acknowledge peers by waving to them. Where we get into AT is when we start looking at the speech output devices that are available to help them accomplish the same thing. Now, I've already gone over some of these examples of accommodations. And here are some images of no-tech to high-tech items. One of my favorite no-tech items is the single or multiple line filters that you see here. This turns out to be the easiest thing to make. You can take a piece of cardboard or even just a piece of paper and cut out a space that allows a student who can be overwhelmed with too much text on a page, they may have dyslexia, they may have dysgraphia, they may have some other functional weakness that makes it difficult for them to absorb the content if all those words are jumping out at them. So, by putting this very simple filter on a page, they're looking just at a line at a time. For some students, you can widen the line and maybe they're looking at two lines or even a paragraph. But I just love that one because people often don't think about it. It takes two seconds to make and I've seen it work many, many times. Another very low-tech device here you see is the visual time keeper. There are just tons of examples of those and they help all students. This is a good example of a universal design for learning. But some students, particularly with executive functions weaknesses, really need to know that a transition is coming up between activities. And if they can see rather than just hear it's going to happen in two minutes, it's gonna happen in five minutes, if they can visually see that pie chart kind of either filling or not filling it's going to help them make the transition. Okay, let's go to the next slide. I was wondering if anybody can identify the AT in the image of this young boy in this yellow t-shirt? It's not necessarily obvious. Does anyone wanna take a stab at where the AT might be in that photo? Okay, I see two people typing, that's very brave and good of you. Ah, okay! Be both right. You're both right. It's a watch and David's saying is it a fidget watch. Well, the watch actually could be any of a number of wearable computers. It can provide the kinds of visual timers that we just looked at on the previous screen. It can provide alerts, it can send, it can connect the child with a parent if they are having a melt down and they need to kind of have a quick way of getting in touch, it can let the child kind of file homework. The teacher can send the homework to both the parent's email, to the child's. But the wearable computers are really something that's gonna take in the future and be, I think, just enormously helpful. So, thank you for weighing in there. Some of these others are just, again, AT spectrum examples. One of the ones I like is the one of the mother and the child that shows you can work with both an AT device and a traditional device, like a book, and they can work very well together. So, let's see. This is the slide I was referring to that identifies AT services. We very frequently ignore the inclusion of AT services in IEPs. And that really affects hugely whether the AT is abandoned or used successfully. So, for instance, the AT evaluation itself is considered an AT service. So, even before you think about okay how am I gonna get the particular device, just having the evaluation is an AT service that any child with an IEP is entitled to. And I just wanna point out that parents and teachers can request an evaluation. Even if the child does not have an IEP it makes it a little harder. They're not necessarily entitled to it under IDEA but you definitely can go ahead and let the school know, let the teacher know, that you think an assessment either entirely for special education services or specifically for AT. So, other parts of the service are, for instance, customizing an AT device for a particular child. Fitting it, depending on their size or weight for instance, maintaining and repairing it. There are a lot of kind of dead AT devices in closets partly for some other reasons that we'll talk about but partly because it broke down and nobody had been identified in the IEP as responsible party for repairing it. So that's important to include as are the other items that you see here. Training, in particular, should absolutely be identified and, I think, increasingly it is but it's still not ubiquitous. Okay, so, now we're gonna move to some of the specific questions, other specific questions, that we got. Someone asked how do you make AT a priority and/or help administrators and teachers understand how important it is? Well, of course, you can always tell them that legally, particularly if your child has an IEP, it is the law. But before that let's assume most people are of goodwill and they want to help the child but they just don't know much about AT. It's kind of a just a concept at best. So, I recommend that you identify a number of videos, if you can find a video, and there are just hundreds and hundreds of them online, that matches the child's age and functional challenge to the extent possible, obviously you want to pick those. But showing people the art of the possible may sound kind of common sense but, as you'll see in the reference here to the blog Uncommon Sense, it is just not done as often as it should be. So, for instance, on the next page where I show some videos, I'm just going to kind of dip a toe into a couple of them, and this blog, Uncommon Sense, has dozens of videos talking about a little girl name Maya who had been evaluated by a lot of professionals, or a lot, I mean, at least three or four professionals from across disciplines, and her parents were told she would never get beyond the developmental milestone for the 19 month old. Her parents did not accept that. No one gave them any help with AT and they became, the mother in particular, became self-taught and there are some wonderful videos including this one, Maya Finds Her voice, that show her going through progressive steps of AT. Starting with ones that have that are not computer based, moving up ultimately to a computer based, tablet based AAC device. So, I thought we would give my voice a break here and just I wanted to show you just the beginnings, otherwise we'll run outta time, of a couple of these videos and invite you to look at them. As I said, all of these are hotlinks and everything's in the CTD library. So, let's take a look at Meet Mason. He's a delightful six year old.

- [Mountbatten] M, A, S, O, N.

- Hi, my name is Mason.

- Mason is six years old. He enjoys a variety of things. He likes music.

- This instrument is called a ukulele.

- He also enjoys playing the Wii. He loves bowling and tennis and he also loves Dance Party. He calls it Just Dance. It's hard for him to follow along with movement but he just dances and has a good time.

- That's about my favorite game.

- Mason is visually impaired. He actually is blind in his left eye and in his right eye he has partial retina that he uses to see with. With that retina that he has intact, he can see about 20/300 vision compared to the normal 20/20. We are a normal family and Mason is a normal child. And we just use some adaptations to help make him successful and adapt to his needs and the loss of his vision.

- My name is Evie Pemrick and I'm Mason's teacher of the Blind and Visually Impaired and also his orientation and mobility specialist. In the classroom, Mason uses his Mountbatten as far as technology goes, mostly for writing activities. So, any time the teacher has the students doing pencil paper writing, Mason uses his Mountbatten.

- You go one, two, three, four, five, six. You just press down these keys. When you type something, it will tell you what you typed.

- [Mountbatten] C, A, T, S.

- It's like bumps, like bumps you read.

- So the--

- [Jackie] Okay, so that was Mason. Let's look at Maya for just a minute. There's no sound at this point. So, you're not missing it.

- [Maya's Mom] I have some fruit!

- [Maya's Mom] Yeah. What should we do with the fruit? Oh, open? Can you say it? Say open.

- Open.

- [Maya's Mom] Good girl! Alright, what are we gonna say?

- [Jackie] Okay, I'm gonna go ahead and move this up a bit so you can see after they've worked with Maya for quite a bit.

- [Maya's Mom] Bunny.

- [Machine] Bunny.

- [Maya's Mom] Bunny!

- [Maya] Bunny.

- [Maya's Mom] Bunny. Where do you wanna go? Do you wanna go back--

- [Jackie] Actually, I'm gonna move it up just a little bit more. Okay.

- [Teacher] But Charlie's fridge is empty. I think that they should go to the, where should they go?

- [Machine] Grocery store.

- [Teacher] Go to the grocery store! Let's go shopping! Hurray! The end.

- More!

- [Machine] More. Book. Please.

- [Teacher] More book please?

- [Jackie] Okay, so you get the idea there. One of the things that I like pointing out in the Maya videos is what a great job her mother does of modeling the behavior with her. It's really important that we not just give a child AT and expect them to operate in a vacuum. The teacher needs to be able to use the AT, particularly something like AAC but there are a lot of other examples. And it's a great idea if siblings and other peers can learn to do it. So, in Maya's case, she has a brother who has no disabilities but he uses the same AAC system to communicate with her. And then I would just say A Teacher's View of Technology is a new CTD video that we're very proud of. It was filmed at a public school in New York City and includes the perspectives of different types of teachers of different subjects and then it gives you a glimpse of in-class use of a variety of different types of AT. Okay, so, another question that came in was how do I get my child evaluated for AT? And I mentioned earlier that you can start with the school, you can start with the teacher, you can, if for some reason you feel the need to go directly to the local to the LEA, you can do that. But the request can come from you, it can come from the teacher. In this case what is being described is the coming together of an IEP team. Now, most people are familiar with IEP teams. They should be made up of the teacher and hopefully someone who's knowledgeable with AT, usually there'll be somebody else from the school, either a counselor or perhaps the vice principal. But the really important thing that is not always done which is to make sure that the parents are involved and, even more rarely done, that the child is involved if at all possible. Because what I want to go over, I'll come back to that. Well, I guess I'll get to it later. One of the things that's really important in AT Assessments is considering child specific characteristics. You might have a great AT device but if it's too heavy for the child to lug around from class to class or from the classroom to the library, from the library to the cafeteria, then it's not going to work. Better to get a device that has fewer bells and whistles if it's appropriate for the child. There is a lot of AT abandonment still because children don't like something. Maybe it can be as simple as the color. We're giving a little boy something that's in fuchsia and he's just embarrassed and doesn't want to use it. So, we really do need to consider child specific activities I mean the child's preferences. And, of course, you need to consider the environment in which the child is going to be using the AT. We have an infographic here. I will see if I can just pull it up. It's in our library and it's a very quick way of having tips even though they're for parents. We also have one for teachers and, quite frankly, this one is as useful for any member of the team. So, let's go back. One of the questions we got was what are the must haves in an AT Assessment report? So, you start, of course, with documenting what the functional learning challenges are. Most IEP teams think about that. Then, the, what a lot of people don't think about is what I was just mentioning, the individual circumstances of the child, all of the environments in which the child will be using the AT. Some AT is more appropriate for one environment or another. You might make an AT choice based on it being useful across environments. So, it may not be the absolute best you can pick for the classroom but if it's gonna work adequately in the classroom and it's also tough enough to be used in the playground, for instance, then that might make it a better choice. The references to home here reminds me that we often get questions about do school have to allow the AT to go home with the child? And the answer is they do if sending it home with the child is necessary for the child to get a free and appropriate public education state. So that translates into do they need to have it in order to do their homework? Or to interact, to get online and participate as part of a group learning activity? So, in that case, the AT does have to go home with them. But, apart from that, it's often a matter of goodwill. Will the school allow it to go home with the child? Issues of security and responsibility come into play. So, usually that's a negotiation. So, other must-haves, of course, you wanna document the tasks that the child needs to accomplish with it and, as I mentioned before, the services, as well. So, AT has to, by law, be considered within every IEP process. These are the possible outcomes. You considered it and decided it wasn't needed. You considered it and this is a child who perhaps has had an IEP already, they're using AT, but it still needs to be reviewed because you have to determine does it still need to be used but is it still appropriate? Is it time to move them up to another level? We've heard from a lot of parents who have said my child is being limited to a 32 word on a page AAC screen and I know that they can handle four times that. So, this is the time to get in there, talk to the IEP team, and say we really need to ratchet this up. So, third potential outcome, they need AT and the team among itself with the members I mentioned earlier has enough information. They can go out and acquire the AT. The final one is yes they need AT but the team really doesn't have enough internal knowledge and that's when they have to go out and find an AT specialist. I put this slide in because I wanted to give you just one of many examples of the kind of AT consideration template that are out there. This one comes from the PACER Center. It's designed to work within the context of an IEP. There are quite a few others. Here are a number of other frameworks. The SETT Framework is probably the best known among school districts across the country and probably the most universally used. And SETT, for anybody who doesn't know, is an acronym for student, environment, task, and tools. And we've just gone over all of those. Here are two other resources that you might wanna take a look at because they come from state departments of education and they address not only a framework for consideration but they also talk about the responsibilities and there's more in here that I thought you might find useful. So, alright, about this funding. We actually didn't get direct questions. We got one question that was kind of a bank shot about funding. But funding is really where the rubber meets the road. You're not going to, everything else can work wonderfully. The IEP team can be great, they can dutifully consider AT, they can identify AT, but then it's a question of funding. Now, the law says, as most of you probably know, that if the AT is identified in the IEP, the school district, not the school per se, but the school district has to provide it. Now, it doesn't necessarily have to buy it. It can get it from a number of other sources, from a lending library. It can, well, lending libraries are probably the biggest, most ubiquitous source of AT from the school system, but the school can not say to the parent or to a teacher sorry we just don't have the money. That said, this is a law that is widely scoffed. And I've heard any number of principals say look, I only have so much money to divide amongst x-number of students and you really think I'm gonna spend $500 on one of them? So, this is not yet a perfect situation. Partly, as a result of that, here are some other resources about funding. ATIA has a funding guide that's not at all specific to students, it addresses adults and sources like Medicaid. Medicaid, by the way, does not fund AT. Some people think of things like wheelchairs and perhaps wheelchair lifts as AT but they actually are not. They're considered durable medical equipment, DME, and DME is in a different funding pot and will be funded by either Medicare or Medicaid. But that's not a source for AT going the other way. Funding AT for K-12 this is a webinar on the CTD website with Chris Gibbons. I would recommend it to you. And then there are a couple of these short guides from PACER Center giving you suggestions on how to fund AT. And you can tell Using Social Media is one of the newer approaches but a lot people have gone that route. There's a lot of crowd sourcing. You know this is the old wouldn't it be great if the, well, I don't wanna have any bias against the military, my husband was career military, but the old saying was if the military had to hold a bake sale but the PTA's got all the funds they needed. So, we're still not at that point. Okay, another questions. When we do check the box on an IEP, oh when do we, so this person, who I believe is probably a teacher, is saying that in his or her school they're providing Read and Write for Google to all students but then they're thinking that that's kind of a universal design for learning. If they're providing that to everybody is the box meaningless? And my answer here is basically that's great except Read and Write for Google is one of thousands of AT devices and programs. And so the fact that a school may be using not only Read and Write for Google but there's a number of other as schools get more and more into universal design for learning there are a number of these programs that used to be mostly for students with disabilities but now are being used across the board. That has no impact on the need for AT consideration during an IEP. Let me just take a look at the chat. Katerina is asking about resources for adults. Okay, let's just hold that for a little bit and we'll get to it. It was really important to me to look at how we evaluate computer based and tablet based apps and programs. Because there are a number of screens in this PowerPoint where I'm answering people said well what are the best apps for reading? What are the best apps for math? And I have put on a slide some of the recommendations from our experts whom we've hired over the years to do webinars and these are their recommendations for best apps in those areas. But, more important to me, is that people who are evaluating AT use, particularly apps, have an understanding of what they should be looking for. This again gets to the art of the possible. There are so many apps that are marketed out there and computer based programs that aren't apps but are computer based and the marketing is, of course, coming from the company. And they're telling you it's a great app and so everybody's saying well it must be. So, let's look at some of the actual criteria for selecting an app or a computer based program. First of all, is it based on any kind of research? What's the evidence that this program works and has been tried with a statistically significant number of students? Is it just coming from the company? Or is there any independent source? It could be coming from the company and that could be valid but you still wanna look at the quality of the evidence. Then, you wanna look, one of the first things, these aren't necessarily in order, but how customizable is it? Apps and programs should be very customizable. At this point, no real reason to select one that isn't. So, the user profile. Can you change a voice to be a girl's or a boy's? Can it be an older, like can it be a teenager or can be a young child? The level of difficulty is kinda obvious but how much control do you as a teach, or you as a parent, or you as a therapist have in establishing the level of difficulty? What's the pace at which, can you control the pace? Can you slow it down? Can you stop it? Sights and sounds. Can you, some children, anyone with epilepsy, for instance, will have a problem with certain flashing lights or flashing images that are included by way of interesting students. But sights, and particularly sounds, should be able to be turned on or off to accommodate those potential problems. Then, something like the number of items, if it's something about math or if it's matching which things match, what's bigger, what's smaller, any of those things there should be a user control that says do you want there to just be four items? Six items, ten items? So, you're looking for how customizable it is. Those aren't the only elements of customization but those are some of them. How steep is the training curve? This is related to how easy is it to use. Is the navigation intuitive? How much training needs to be done for both the child or youth or the person working with them. Not only is it visually appealing but are the images culturally diverse and relevant to particular children? We've got a long ways to go in that regard but I include things like this so that we can kinda keep the demand up for that. And, of course, how interactive is it? I'm a big proponent of children not being too young, children with disabilities not being too young to use tablet based programs. But there's a general sense of no screens before a child is two years old. And my standard answer to that is we're not talking about a non-interactive program, we're not talking about parking a child in front of a video and leaving them there for an hour. We're talking about interactive programs the require engagement by the child and, ideally, certainly for young children, the child and adult working with them. Other types of criteria, or other criteria for evaluating these programs. What type of immediate feedback and remediation is provided? Of course you want something upbeat you don't want just an eeaahbuzzer wrong. You want something that says yes that was great or try again. But the type of remediation is important because you don't just want something that if there's three answers and the child just gets to click through all of them and the program isn't registering that, then it's not really showing that it understands what type of remediation the child needs and where they might be, where they should be moved on to a higher level or a lower level of performance. You can read through some of these other criteria. I'm a little concerned about running out of time so I'm just going to go get to the next screen. So, here's where someone, and again, we get this a lot, but in this case someone with dyslexia or reading issues, I mean this is a well expressed question and we had a webinar with an expert, her name's Sharon Plante, and this is her, some of these are taken from her resource list. She has a very well organized research list. I'm just going to pull it up for you quickly. You can see how it's organized, Text to Speech, Speech to Text, even Paper Text to Speech, Reading Accommodations, Decoding for Reading, Differentiated Non-Fiction, it's a very well organized list. So, I've pulled out some of the items, some of the programs, that she mentioned and a few that some other people have mentioned. And, again, as I keep saying, all of these are hot links so if you click on them you will go to information about that particular app. This is the same, this is also pulled from that same resource. And then we got a question about math assistance. So, it's not really so much that an app, yes, the content maybe you're practicing math but actually what you're looking for is those criteria that I just went through. And you have to look at why is the child having problem with math? Is it a cognition issue? Is it they need to access math resources in a different way because they have some other type of sensory challenge? We have five math-related webinars at CTD and here's a link to them. This App Matrix is particularly good. It was from Diana Petschauer's webinar and as I scroll through it you'll see that it is very comprehensive. And it identifies the app, it tells you whether it works with IOS or with Android, and then in the Comments and Features section she's included what it can actually do, counts, adds, subtracts, digital 3D graphing, telling time, math drills, and it goes on and on. So, this is a really, rather than just have me copy and paste some things, I wanted to point you toward this resource which you can access at your leisure. Same essential question for text to speech and speech to text. If anyone has any questions about what those are conceptually, please put it in the chat box. Otherwise, these are some hyperlinked suggestions from our experts. There are an increasing number of text to speech and speech to text devices but the really good news on this front is we have moved far away from where we were just 10 years ago where you really needed specialized devices. They were expensive, they had a steep learning curve, and now these have really become nearly ubiquitous on cell phones and on tablet apps and through computer the microphones attached to computers. These are so built in you just really need to find what's appropriate both to the child and to the task and the environment, as we mentioned before. So, you'll see there's a couple of screens here, text to speech, speech to text. These are some, I thought, strong resources to tell you about some other recommended apps. All of these people have done webinars for us. And these are either the PowerPoints associated with those webinars or the handouts associated with them. We got a question about AT devices for libraries which was one of my favorite questions ever. And here are just some things that I thought about. The single and multi-line filters are the things I was talking about at the beginning where you just show, you could pass this out at a library and it would help someone with dyslexia or dysgraphia. Page fluffers is kind of an old technology, I think most people know, that helps any user who has fine motor issues turn the pages of a book. Magnifiers, wiggle cushions. There aren't too many libraries that are providing seating supports for wiggle cushions but wiggle cushions are one of the most frequently requested AT by teachers now because they're finding that there can be like almost an instantaneous increase in children's concentration and performance when they're able to wiggle in their seat or just move. So, we're seeing that widely adopted and there's no reason why libraries couldn't support them. Tactile globes and maps are useful for a lot of people. And the others are kind of, I just wanted to call out videos, whoops, should be captioned. They aren't all captioned but you want to be looking, whether you're a teacher or a librarian, you want to be looking for captioned videos. Described videos are not that well known. They're videos in which space between dialogue is used to describe the setting so that people with vision impairments or blindness can get a sense of what does the room look like, what does the person look like. And somebody can say, well, if you've been vision impaired since birth does that have any meaning for you? And the answer that we get from people who are blind or vision impaired, for different reasons, is yes, it does have meaning. And they really appreciate described videos. Okay, so, this gets finally to Katerina. You were asking about adults. And we did, and perhaps this was your question. What are the best apps to use for job site reminders? So, here are the Succeeding on the Job Using Technology to Boost the Skills is a webinar that was done by Sarah Giffen-Hunter and Paul Sanft from PACER and they have this specific handout which I'll just pull up here. And they've divided it into different types of skills. So, apps that help you get enough sleep and get up on time. And address your stress level or help you kind of deal with anxiety in the workplace. Communication, they've included some communication apps here that are particularly appropriate for adults. And task management and organization you'll see some of their recommendations here. Time management apps. Some of these are good for people of any age but these were selected by them specifically for older users. Having appropriate behavior and social skills in the workplace, here are a number of resources for that. Following directions. One of the things that technology has allowed us to do is to replace very expensive job coaches with job coaching apps where you can not only record a video of the various steps involved in an adult performing a task at work but you can show them doing the task themselves. So, presumably, you have trained that person, you or someone has trained that person, and you're watching them go through the various tasks involved in whatever the overall task is. And people forget. And people with disabilities, depending on the disability, may particularly forget. So if they are able to call up, on their phone or on a computer, a video showing themselves successfully having done this or showing somebody else doing it, it's really helpful. They don't have to bother somebody else, they don't have to ask 10 times, they can play their video 10 times and get a positive or at least not a negative response to needing that much repetition. Okay, here's some learn new job skill apps that are useful. So, this you can easily access either through this PowerPoint or through the CTD website. This Handheld Technology Supports and Transition to Employment will take you to Carrie Clawson's webinar on the subject. And on the right hand side here you'll see both the PowerPoint and she has an iPodChecklist which is most useful in the context of the webinar rather than on its own. So, I hope, Katerina, that helped a little bit. We had a question about finding local resources. The Department of Education funds what they call the OSEP Parent Network which is a network of about 100 Parent Training and Information Centers, PTIs, or Community Parent Resource Centers. There's at least one in every state. Some of the larger states have as many as three. Then there are what we call Tech-Act Programs that don't just focus on children. Some of the Tech-Act Programs will have lending libraries, just as some of the PTIs, some of the larger ones, may have an AT either a lending library or workshops on AT. Both of these sources will, going to this link you'll be able to find a specific resource in the state that doesn't always help you if you're in a city far away from the state but if you get in touch with them they may be able to show you more local resources. And then I'm suggesting kind of overall if you do a search on assistive technology lending library in your state, there are a lot of programs that will come up that don't come up in these other resources. So, in Massachusetts, for instance, there's something called MassMatch. And a lot of states have things like that where there are multiple lending libraries around the state and people can go and borrow and trial of various AT devices before they commit to purchasing them. So, that brings us to the end just about at the top of the hour. Just like we do with all our webinars, we're asking you to complete a brief survey and, importantly, if you would like a certificate of participation, please at the end of the survey just let us know and we'll send you one suitable for framing or giving to whomever your supervisor is at school. Okay, so, I'm just looking in the chat box to see if there's any final questions. And I don't see any but thank you for joining today. And I hope you'll use the CTD library for this and many other resources. Thank you, Katerina, thank you, David. I'm wondering perhaps we just had a three person chat? But if that was the case it was nice chatting with you! The webinar will be recorded.