Giving Instant Feedback to Disabled Students with Technology to Create Engagement and Motivation

This webinar will explore several online student response systems in the classroom, as well as the psychology of instant feedback and the positive effect it has on students with disabilities, with the use of the technology. John F. O'Sullivan, a librarian and Assistive Technology specialist with Chelmsford Public Schools, will explain some of the technologies that teachers can use to engage all types of learners in the classroom. (Get the Presentation Slides here.)


- [Anna] Well, good afternoon everyone. We're going to go ahead and get started, since it is now 4:00. Welcome to today's webinar, Giving Instant Feedback to Disabled Students with Technology to Create Engagement and Motivation. Instant feedback can help alleviate some of the frustrations that disabled students feel and reinforce positive learning behaviors. This webinar today, we will explore several online student response systems, as well as the psychology of instant feedback, and the positive effect it has on students with disabilities. Today we're are joined by Mr. John O'Sullivan. John O'Sullivan is a librarian and assistive technology specialist, who works for Chelmsford Public Schools, at Chelmsford High School. He's published several books on educational and assistive technology, and holds four certifications in education. Just a couple notes before we get started, at the end of this webinar, there will be a brief survey, as well as an opportunity for you to download a certificate for attending. And also we're going to be having a few videos playing throughout the presentation so we would ask that while those videos are playing, you turn off your computer speakers if you're listening via phone so that there's no, so that there isn't a double playback or echo or anything. Okay, so I'm going to turn it over to John now, so he can get started. Thank you all.

- [John O'Sullivan] Thank you very much, I'm John O'Sullivan and this is Giving Instant Feedback to Disabled Students with Technology to Create Engagement and Motivation, just like she said. The first half we're going to talk a lot about the psychology of giving instant feedback, and the second half we're going to talk about a lot of different programs that you can use in your classrooms to give students instant feedback. So, let me move right along. I'd like to welcome everybody here on behalf of the Center on Technology and Disability, I'd like to welcome I see we have 15 participants here, that's wonderful.

Welcome to this webinar. And this is my background, I think they just mentioned it too, I have a background in both special education and I'm alsotechnology integration. Currently work as a librarian and that's well known as an ed tech author. I've written a number of books on the subject. So, feedback, what is instant feedback? This is about letting students know how he or she is doing in realtime and this can be done with educational technology. It can also be done face to face, but when you have 25 students in front of you, it's hard to do to each of them the same time. when you deal with educational technology you can give instant feedback to a large group on a more regular basis than face to face. Not to say that we should do away with face to face meetings because that's definitely a big part of the classroom is that face to face interaction. But that's a lot of the reason why instant feedback works.

People they always like the face to face interaction with a parent or teacher or a friend. Technology isn't the same thing, but we can give feedback so much faster and to so many more people that it has many of the same effects as that face to face meeting. So, why does technology work? Students generally like instant feedback, we all like attention. If you make a mistake you can correct it right away and that's huge because what happens is you don't know you made a mistake and you keep making, you're spending all that time making mistakes. So, if you correct something early on, then that creates more opportunity for positive reinforcement when you're getting the answer right because it was corrected the first time. And the negative feedback, sometimes the fact that it's impersonal, it's from a computer. Like if you're reading something on your phone or you see the little red underline in Microsoft Word and you click on it, you really feel as though it's private, other people aren't seeing what you're doing.

Sometimes it's like depersonalization is good, because it's less stressful for your phone or your computer telling you did something wrong, than having humans tell you sometimes. Sometimes it's a positive but the fact that you correct the mistake early on means that it gives more opportunities for positive reinforcement in the future which is really huge. And the goal is really to take away many of the negative things that happen when people make mistakes and give more opportunities for positive things to happen. That's what instant feedback can help do, because if you correct the mistakes early on you have less examples of negative things happening, more if you have a lot of positive things happening. So, when people say work harder, I would say love what you do because when I was younger I would used to, I struggled in school and people used to say work harder. Work harder, and as a teacher I like to think that, I mean everything in learning is not going to be fun granted you can't make everything fun but you know, when you're enjoying yourself in your classroom a lot of times that's when the best learning is taking place and if you can get people to enjoy the journey of learning it's not hard.

I don't think the idea of making work hard makes it better. Maybe there's sometimes there aren't ways to avoid some hard work, but when you can make more learning a joyful experience, it's so much better. People are drawn into a field to do something. People decide to do something for the life because they enjoy it. Yes, money is nice, but like I said if you enjoy what you do it doesn't seem like work, and I think that's very important for people to realize. When you're teaching if you can get that feeling across not just about the technology, communicate that emotion across, it can make a huge difference in people's productivity. So, let's compare immediate feedback to traditional teaching model. Traditional teaching model a lot of times you'll test your students once every two weeks, then your students get back their tests a few days later. Students bring in homework, we check to see if they did do it.

And I know with the younger ages, obviously you might spend more time helping them with some of those things. Students raise hands but only when they know the right answer. So if someone sits back and is quiet, yeah eventually we can still call on them anyway but, you know, the fact that you have instant feedback with technology, everybody is engaged. Everybody is answering questions, everybody is getting feedback. And in this traditional model, students self check answers. So if a student didn't do well on a subject then we move on to something else. Almost like okay, we're done with that, you didn't do well, now we're going on to something else. With technology you get the negative feedback and then you can go and fix it and do something with it. So it creates more opportunities. Let's move on. So we have a poll question here. How many people here use educational technology several times a week? Or more? Every day, 42% that's good. Okay, several times a week, 31%, so most people do.

But even if you didn't use technology at all a lot of the programs I'm showing are, we're going to show to you in the second half of this, aren't high end difficult programs to use. You know, mid-level or even a lower level computer user could learn a lot of them. So, okay we have a good mix. So most people here use technology a lot, that's wonderful, I'm glad to hear that. Okay, so you can see the results, I'll go on to the next slide. The red ink effect. If you have gray hair like I do, you probably remember getting papers back with red ink. I don't think they're allowed to do it anymore. But that was the old way of doing it, you get a paper back, you'd write the whole paper and then they would mark it up with red ink and then they'd give it to you and you'd make all the corrections at once.

And if you're like me you probably remembered reading through all that red ink and like okay, I got to look this word up in the dictionary and I don't know what they mean here, and can I ask the teacher what this means and then you had to go do all this work and fix it, and it was overwhelming. And it was a very very stressful experience getting all this negative feedback at one time. I mean sometimes it's necessary for that to happen, but it doesn't make it fun. The way you feel when you're going through that is not very good about yourself. So, that's the old way of giving feedback like when you're doing writing. Let's compare that to Microsoft Word. Now Microsoft Word, it gives you the feedback and it used to, the way it used to do it is that it would underline, you'd tell it to spell check and it underline all the words that were misspelled and that was less stressful than the red ink, because it was easier to correct.

You could just go in and make a couple changes and you didn't have to rewrite the whole thing, so that was less stressful, but then somebody at Microsoft just said you know what, as you're typing it we'll tell you if it's right or wrong. And the fact that you're making one mistake immediately at one time is actually less stressful to making 20 corrections at one time, or 30 corrections, how many you have to make after writing an entire essay? It actually creates less stress. And if you've ever been through that, you understand what I'm saying, I don't have to throw out a statistic, or a number, or a study to explain that. But the fact that you make the mistake right away, and then you correct it, it didn't feel like it was a mistake the same way as if you get the red ink back a week later and you thought you did everything correct. Sometimes that perception of I did it correct and then finding out later that it's wrong is more upsetting than if you just get the immediate feedback, and then you fix it. So, moving on to the next one. Actually done research about this that they have done real written articles about the negative effects of red ink.

So it's not just me, 'cause I used to think when I go back to the red ink, I was the one who was stressed out. But this does actually happen to everybody and people have written about it, and if you have teachers in your school, probably a lot of them don't use red ink anymore for the same reason. But that's why a lot of the corrections are being done online. So, how does this relate to students with disabilities? I was asked a question actually from a friend on Twitter the other day, and he's saying well how does giving instant feedback to students with disabilities, how is it different from regular education? And that's kind of actually it's the thought process of it because when I do assisted technology and I think about it, you're about finding a device for one student. And they want to complete this functional task and you say, here's this device that completes this functional task to this one student.

And the reason it doesn't work the most times, there's technical problems, there's all sorts of problems that can go wrong, but the number one reason it doesn't work is student doesn't want to be different. The number one reason. So, if you use technology with the whole class, the student isn't being treated differently. They're being treated the same as everybody else. So if it's a class of all special needs students, they're going to be on all different levels, and if you're in a regular class, you're going to have people on all different levels too because there's so many special needs students are now being serviced by regular ed. So the point of instant feedback using with the whole class is so that students with disabilities don't feel different. ESL students don't feel different. Students who might have maybe emotional issues, executive function problems, any sort of challenge in their life, everybody isn't being treated differently, but everybody's getting the benefit of it.

And the reason why I talk about this relating to special needs is because a lot of our time in a classroom with our regular educator or special educator is taken up by a smaller group of students. Each student is in the time, doesn't have the same exact needs, so there's always a couple students that take up a good portion of our time, and if we can give everybody feedback at once then that certainly frees up more time for the classroom to flow. So, here how does this relate to students with a disability. So, I think I listed most of these here. I would also increase it helps create motivation and interest. People learn much faster through success than failure. They've taught people golf, where they learn to golf by starting an inch away from the hole and moving back, and they actually learn faster than if you do the traditional way where you have to do the long drive.

So, if you put people in situations where they're successful and you keep building on those successes over and over again they tend to learn faster and there's actually been studies that back that up. And when I've looked for studies on instant feedback they just say like yes, it works, there isn't like a debate of people saying no, we should make people wait. So, that's good to know. Assistive technology, I mention a lot of that. And like I said, with assistive technology finding a device that functionally completes and does a task is absolutely something important that we do and there's certainly times that it needs to be done. But whenever we can take that assistive technology and put it in a situation where it blends in with everybody else.

When you can use, a child using assistive technology that's a plug in, or extension for Chrome, and they're using the same program and it looks more like what the other students are doing it always helps because like i say, I always want them to invent an app to convince people to use technology. You know, they always say there's an app for that. Is there an app to convince people that they want to use an app? That's a big thing, so anytime you can use assistive technology to be used with everybody it's used. And a lot of it with instant feedback, the programs that are used out there a lot of them are really education technology for the regular classroom. And since it's used with everybody, it might be benefiting those special needs students more but it's being used with everybody so no one sits feeling different.

Okay, how does it feel when you get feedback, or no feedback at all? One of the mistakes we do, and we do this, this happens whether you're a manager, a parent, or a teacher and one of the biggest mistakes we do is sometimes when people are doing good things we don't say anything. Like if someone's doing something well, tell them they're doing something well because if you ignore something a lot of times it goes away. 'Cause I've dealt with that with my bosses, but you were doing this, well I used to like that why don't you do it? I didn't know you like it. Every human whether you're a manager working with adults, children, the closest spectrum, everybody deals with that. How you feel when you do something is so important. If you feel as though you're doing a good job and you're excited about it, the time goes by faster, you're more productive, you're more engaged.

Then if you think of the days you go into work, if you've ever had a day in work where things went wrong and it could have been something minor, and a few people get stressed out, and I mean the difference in your productivity and the difference when you're doing those tasks is huge. Because if you've ever had a bad experience with paperwork and it happens a couple of times, you're going to get stressed out over paperwork, even if you've never got stressed out before. And that's with any activity out there. So, the more times we can give people positive experiences and minimize negative experiences, the much better off we are and the more likely they are to learn.

Okay, poll question, do you find that engaging and motivating students is a need in your classroom? Yeah, I think that's pretty much everybody. Yeah, I think everybody has that. I think it's a big thing, we're told always to motivate students but we're never kind of told how to motivate students. You can bring in certain, you can find certain really good lessons that are out there that do that. But technology, I always think is a very important way to do it, and it's a very good way to do it. So, what are the benefits of instant feedback? Okay if you, I've said this before, if you make a mistake you can correct it right away. Teacher gets real-time data, like if you use a lot of these student response systems you're getting real-time data, but the students themselves are getting real-time data because they're getting the feedback. 'Cause I know whenever I'm talking to a lot of the people in the field with PHD they're always talking about getting data from the students and its changed their teaching pattern.

Well you know what, the students need feedback, they need data too to know if they're doing it correctly. It's a two way street. Teachers can change their teaching, students can change their behavior. Immediate consequences whether they're positive or negative are more effective than delayed consequences, that's across everything in society. If a student does something wrong and you do something about it right away, you can correct it and it stops. Whether it's a behavior problem, or whether it's an education problem, or whether it's a social issue, whatever it is, it's much better. If you tell them a week later they don't necessarily know what they did wrong. And this goes from children to adults, so the sooner the feedback is, the more effective it is. And that's pretty much been settled for in behavioralism for a long time. So, yes and if it's negative feedback then they can use it to avoid consequences, so they don't get it wrong multiple times, they only get it wrong once.

So, and also a lot of the instant feedback can cause emotional response, a lot of times when they're using these student response systems you'll see students wanting to get the answer right and reacting. Even if they get it wrong, they're reacting to it, and they actually enjoy the competition of doing it. I did a lesson with students many many years ago when I first really figured out how powerful this was, and I had a computer class and I had them do a writing program during computer class. So, taking them from a high interest activity to a low interest activity and I thought that the students were not going to be happy with me that I had them do this. But the program we were using was giving them instant feedback, and it was an expensive program, I don't know how much they used it after that, but it gave them instant feedback on their writing and the students liked it and I was surprised because I'm like, I didn't think that having students go from a high interest thing where it's using computers to a low interest thing which is writing that I would get such a positive response.

And I realize some of that was because they were good kids, but some of it was because that instant feedback that they were getting, they liked the writing. A lot of them actually liked doing the writing because they were getting the feedback. 'Cause they got the feedback, they make the changes, and then they were happy because they were doing better, which was really interesting to me because it wasn't something that I was aware of. The other big thing is the students we don't talk about is self awareness, like the younger you are the less self aware you are about that. I guess people with gray hair like myself, getting a little bit of gray hair, we could say we have more experience.

But people tend to be a little more self aware of certain things they're doing as they get older. But everybody is different, you could be self aware of certain things, and then other things you could have no idea. So self awareness is a big thing with students, the more that they're self aware about how much they know, and what they can do, the better off we are. And one of the best ways to do that is certainly with the student response systems and also with instant feedback. Okay, why does it work? People love attention. Everybody loves attention. Even like I go to conferences and you see teachers getting up there and teaching and talking, and they're interacting with people, everybody loves attention, everybody from grandparents to young preschool kids, everybody enjoys it.

Instant feedback is something that students get on a regular basis and they're used to in their activity, they're used to it with video games, they're used to with using an iPad, they're used to with using a computer. It's a very good thing. Technology works because it helps make people feel. I think we forget about that, I've written a number of ed tech books and like my 2018 resolution is that I'm going to be talking about why people should use technology. Going to be talking about feelings and how technology makes people feel, and how that affects behavior, because I thought at one point telling people about technology and explaining to them that was enough. And I realize now that the big difference is people understand why they should use it and how it changes people's feelings. These are pictures of the instant feedback that students are used to when they go home and sometimes in school, the cell phones, the computers.

You have less students watching TV, now they're going on the computer, they're going into YouTube, they're going into Netflix, they're playing apps, they're playing video games. Even the stuff that they're doing where it's productive on their phones is very instantaneous. I mean video editing used to be this complicated process now you can do video editing on your phone and you hit a couple buttons and it works. So that's the world we live in, that's the world students live in when they go home, and when they come to school it's a different place where they don't have that. So the more we can give them those scenarios where it's more like their cell phone, or their computer and where they're getting that instant feedback, the better their lives are, the more productive and happy they are. Now, instant feedback, even works when it's negative, okay? People are being cyber bullied and they still keep going online. Adults do this with Facebook.

Adults will go onto Facebook and they will argue with each other and they will keep having to go back because they type something and something says something back, or they get a notification on their phone so they, oh I'm free now so I'll type something back. And with texting and driving, I'm more scared of texting and driving than I am with drinking and driving at this point. Both are very dangerous, but there's something about instantly interacting with something that gets people wrapped up into it. So, do you find that attention spans of your students are shorter in the computer age? Yeah, I would say most people are saying yes, got four yes so far, I'll give a few seconds, got nine yes so.

One now, okay that's interesting. Person changed, they hit the wrong button, okay. I think in a lot of cases they are because the world they live in outside of school is faster, whether it's YouTube, whether it's movies, movies are faster. You go back 20-30 years ago, movies moved much slower. You try to show someone in their 20's an old movie from 1980's they don't want to see it, they think it's too slow. But that's the way the culture has moved. We probably can find some exceptions in there, certain ages and certain places, but I think for the most part everything has gotten much faster and people are used to this. Immediately things happening, immediately getting the feedback. Gamifying, people talk about gamifying things in lessons and when people think gamify I have an experience, I don't think I can make all my lessons about Space Invaders, they get into a video game.

I don't think I can quite do that, and if I tell people let's gamify your lessons, yes certain lessons at certain ages work, but what games do is they give instant feedback a lot. The games today that they play with video games, it gives instant feedback, they get instant sound, they get instant visual, immediate consequences. And that's important because if you can take that one aspect of things happening immediately and put it into your curriculum, then you're gamifying your curriculum without gamifying it. So, I'm not saying you should gamify but you kind of make it like a game when you make it immediate back and forth. When they type in something and they get immediate response it gives a quality that gamifying something does, but it puts it in your curriculum and doesn't make it look like a video game. Guess that's the best way to. So I want to take kind of the best part of gamification without putting in cartoon characters or noises or video game.

And that's one of the things that I think that instant feedback can help us do. What does the research do? All of the research that I could find basically suggests instant feedback works better and I know, I got my undergrad in psychology, I know that one of the things that they're saying was that you know, immediate consequences or immediate reward works better. So it's pretty much settled, I looked, I couldn't find anyone saying you know what delayed consequences are so much better, I mean yes we should all learn delayed gratification it's a good quality to learn, it's very important, a lot of the most important things we do we have to delay before we get, we have a long delay before we get the reward, but if you want to get behavior moving in the right direction giving instant feedback is usually the best way to do it.

Hopefully most said feedback is positive, but if it's negative at least if they have the opportunity to change it then they still have a lot of opportunities to get the positive feedback. How can we give instant feedback. Well the fastest way is with technology, obviously. Correcting papers and returning them obviously isn't instant feedback. Obviously we should still give feedback in person. We should give feedback by talking to our students, talking to our classes. I don't think we should forget about the interpersonal part, I try to think that the giving instant feedback is a way to enhance it when using with technology but I don't think we should be in a world where we're only using technology not talking face to face.

I think we need a combination of the two, and kind of use the best of both worlds. Okay, so why is there not more people using technology instant feedback? A lot of people had back experiences with technology, I've heard a lot of it, I've experienced a lot of it myself. And I think there was a time when you'd put a lot more work in than you'd get back. What I'm trying to tell people is that we're getting to the point where you're getting more back than what you put in with technology, and that's hard to believe because your experiences in the past didn't always project that. Your experiences in the past a lot of times, you're putting a lot of work to get it to work.

Software companies have figured this out and they're making things more streamlined and simple like when you're signing up for a website you can click on Facebook or Google and you'll use the same sign-in, because they realize people don't want to create 100 different log-ins. They're realizing that, they want your experience where you click on something and it works. The technology is catching up with the human beings. The technology has been good for a while but the people making the technology has tried to figure out that they have to cater to human beings and it's kind of the Steve Jobs effect, Steve Jobs really started from the vision of you have the user and the person sitting there, how do I make the computer work the way they think it should work? And he was very successful and the people have gotten away from that haven't been. But there's a lot of move in that direction, and as a result it's gotten a lot better--

- [Man 1] I want to talk about how the power of instant feedback--

- Okay, so we have a video on instant feedback.

- Texting, this isn't actually a new problem, they're making laws, it's dangerous that people will cross the street and won't look for cars. It blows your mind that we actually have to have a law about that and obviously texting while driving has been a problem for a long time. I like the picture of the woman in the corner with the zombie, I guess somebody has a real sense of humor. But you get the idea. This is something that's really dangerous and obviously it's that instant feedback that I can ask a question and get an answer and getting caught up in a conversation, and that used to happen with real face to face meetings which are very important. And then you have billion dollar companies like, multi-billion dollar companies like Facebook--

- [Anna] We're not getting any audio, John.

- [John] I'm not getting audio of mine so I wasn't sure if they're getting on theirs--

- Power of this concept and you realize how it affects everything, so let's take a look at it. You have walking while texting, this actually a new problem they're making laws it's dangerous that people cross the street and won't look for cars. It blows your mind that we actually have to have a law about that and obviously texting while driving has been a problem for a long time. I like the picture of the one in the corner with the picture of the zombie, somebody has a real sense of humor. But you get the idea, this is something that's really dangerous and obviously it's that instant feedback that I can ask a question and get an answer. And getting caught up in a conversation and that used to happen with real face to face meetings, which are very important and then you have billion dollar companies like, multi-billion dollar companies like Facebook.

People go on and for reasons that I don't understand one friend's talking about politics, or arguing, so even when it's negative the fact that it's instantaneous you can go and do whatever you want, for some reason it gets people drawn into this. And then if you want to know information, there was a time you used to have to go and find somebody who knew that information and talk to them, now you just Google and get the information immediately. Just look at the power, how many times a day we actually use this. Then I guess before now, like renting a movie people go today to Netflix, and they rent a movie. Nobody wants to drive to Blockbuster, nobody gets nostalgic and says I really want to rewind, it's that instantaneous, obviously getting it quicker.

We're at the point where two day delivery for free from Amazon isn't enough, that people want a drone to come to their house and drop it off. And even in something like Microsoft Word, you know when there's mistakes, things are underlined and people make the change right away. And you have to understand this is billions and billions of dollars of infrastructure that's changing the way we socialize, it's changing our economy, it's changing the way in which we operate our lives, and we still want it faster so that is the power of making feedback quicker and if it's instantaneous it's the most powerful. It's changing the way in which we operate our lives and we still.

- Okay. Okay, so the audio didn't come out the phone but I think most people got it from the computer so that was a video on instant feedback. So let me go on to the next screen. I should also point out the links in the bottom. If you miss one of these videos, there's links at the bottom to all of them. Like the first one says instant feedback video. But there's links to all the rest of them so if something happens and you couldn't hear the video or you want to hear it again, you're free to do that so the good news about using technology is a lot of it is free or inexpensive, there's a lot out there. A lot of times with the student response systems you know if you go back five or six years ago, people could have been paying thousands of dollars for some of them, now you have a website that you can get it from, you can get them for free, and then most of them have something where at some point if you want more you can pay some money to get more from that company.

But a lot of them have stuff that if a teacher just wants to try in their classroom and to use it for a little while, and sometimes even use it for a long time with all their classes, a lot of times it's either free or it's gotten to be very reasonably priced. And they've gotten a lot more user friendly. Which is very important, because I mean I always want to get teachers to do things that are time effective. Whenever I'm working with a teacher with technology I'm always pointing out that it's something that is very time effective because if it's not, it's going to be hard to get them to do something again. So, the bottom line is that you're going to get out more than you put in with technology. Especially with some of the ones we're going to be showing you in a few minutes.

So, these are the student response systems that I like. There's a number of them out there and they've been evolving over years and getting better. So, these are the ones I suggest. Kahoot! might be the most popular one that people are using right now. I think it's one of the most user friendly ones. I think it might be the most user friendly one. Socrative, sometimes I pronounce it Sock-rative, but it's pronounced socrative, is another really good one. I usually recommend people they start with a Kahoot! and then if that one, you're happy with that one and you want more, you can go to Socrative. They really complement each other. Because they have slightly different qualities but if you learn one you can pretty much use the other one, with the learn a few couple of bells and whistles on the other one and you're good.

One of the good things with technology especially since I write about is like, I like to put technology in a group and the good thing about a lot of these two response systems is when you learn one, the next one you learn can be much easier because a lot of similarities. If you learn one, the second will take you half the amount of time. And if you learn a couple of them, the next one you use you're going to pick up very quickly and very rapidly, so that's an important thing to know. People still need human interaction and I always point this out, some people are scared of technology 'cause like I'm reading a lot of stuff like for instance on blended learning and using technology and using computers some of the time. The students are on the computer by themselves, sometimes they're working with a teacher, but students need that face to face contact with teachers. They need the feedback, as human beings we need to read each other's body language, we need to listen to each other.

One of the best piece of advice I ever got about teaching was when I was a young teacher an older teacher told me you know, John when the come in the classroom look at their faces and see how they're doing. Because there were some days the students came in and they didn't look too happy and my lesson changed and they never knew that my lesson changed based on that, but it did. And I think a lot of people are good teachers are very intuitive and they can sense other people's feelings and they can tell when the students are having a difficult day, need to shift gears a little bit. So, that's very important as well. Okay, so what are the benefits of student responses. Well the number one benefit is to give them instant feedback and obviously that's what we're talking about. But it also collects data on the students in real time and that can change how you're teaching, but it's also a great assessment tool.

The big thing that I deal with when I am looking at education technology, the one thing that drives me crazy more than anything else is there's so much good technology out there that doesn't have an assessment and if I was to sit down with a software maker for a company, I would tell him or her that you need something in that app or in that software that does an assessment and is good at it and that keeps data. When we had the explosion of all these apps on the iPad they weren't doing assessments most of them, and it didn't catch on, and that's one of the reasons. So, assessment's a big part and there are many different student response systems to choose from and most of them are either low cost, free and they're all very user friendly.

So, poll question, have you ever used a student response system, like Kahoot! would be included or some of the other ones, if you use Plickers. Okay, so we have about a 52-47 split of the people who have answered, so we have slightly more people who have used one than haven't, which is actually that's good. It's good to have a lot of people who haven't used before, and a lot of people have used it before, the people who have used it in the past, now maybe you can learn what is the next thing that I can go? What is the next piece of technology that I can find, that I can use that'll make a huge difference in my classroom, which is very very important. Okay, so I'm going to go into the next slide. Self awareness, I put it on this slide because this is something that I have to remind myself of all the time. Self awareness, I mean if you're going to fix a problem the first thing you have to know is you have a problem.

And this doesn't matter if it's a really big big problem, or if it's a really small problem. You have to A, know that your problem, you have to admit to your problem, and obviously you have to take steps to do something about it. So, instant feedback makes people aware of a problem early on and it lets them know about those little missing details in the beginning which is important. So, it lets them know about they're not doing something right, square one or square two, they don't wait until the problem progresses and it's harder to change, to get them to unlearn it. Self awareness is a big thing, is a big key to what instant feedback can help give students. So, Kahoot! is the first one. Kahoot! I really like because one, it's simple, it's very user friendly, I consider kind of gamified the way they have it set up, even though the other ones you can make the same argument. There's kind of a feel of Kahoot! the way it looks and interacts and it seems more like a game. And it's very user friendly, a lot of teachers use this one because it's user friendly. So if you're going to start using one, you've never used one before for about the 50% of people said maybe they never used this before, I would suggest that you start with Kahoot! is a good one to start with because it's so user friendly. Okay so we have a video on Kahoot!

- [Announcer] This is Kahoot! This is probably the most user friendly of the student response systems that I use and it's very popular for that reason, 'cause it's very dynamic, and it's very user friendly. It's similar to Socrative in that you just simply type in a number for the students to enter the room to get it to work. Answering the questions is fairly simple, and creating the quizzes is fairly simple. One of the great features of Kahoot! is that you can share our quizzes, there's a ton of them that are already there, so if I wanted to pick out a quiz that's already existing I could use that with one of my classes, or you could create your own. And they're fairly simple enough to create on your own.

So if you go to create a new kahoot, you just put new, it has a K with an exclamation point, you can make several different things. You can make a quiz, you can make a survey, you can make a discussion or you can make a jumble, which is a type of a game. So I'm going to click on quiz because that's the most common one that people do. And you can put in a picture or you can also start with a video as an introduction. Insert, you can put a YouTube video and the video goes introduction, and you can even cut back the time of the video, like if you only wanted to show certain parts of the video, you can do that as well. Obviously you have to name it. Okay, and to create questions it's fairly simple, you click add a question. And it gives you answers one, two, three, four and obviously you can upload an image, you can upload a video, you can add a video, a click and add a video, you can do it from YouTube, and simply click add.

You can give a time limit of how much time somebody has to answer the questions. You can award points. So this is fairly easy for someone to use. Now we're going to click on jumble, and you can see you can put in a picture or an image and jumble questions are very simple. You can see the different answers there and it will mix them up when they play the game. You type the question there and they have a time limit. One of the best things about Kahoot! is find kahoot. You can find different quiz that people have done, and sometimes it's a good idea to start this way because by doing that you can get an idea what other people are doing, people who have mastered their craft. You get a better idea how to make very dynamic quizzes and games with Kahoot! But this is the most powerful one because people tend to find this to be the most user friendly and easy of all of them, and that's why I know more teachers using Kahoot! than are using the other free student response systems.

- Okay, so that's the video. I'm getting a couple questions in here. Karen's asking about students who have multiple impairments including severe cognitive impairment. One of the cool things of Kahoot! is like the difference answers they have, like it's a letter, they have shapes. So it's a little bit simpler. Plickers which is one where they hold up a card, where they just have to tilt the card in a certain direction to answer A, B, C, or D. It might be easier and maybe you might want to do less choices with them as far as that going. And what about creating a video feedback for students using the Flip Grid. Flip Grid is another good one, yeah. Flip Grid is definitely another good one. That's where students, you ask a question and students answer by making a short video and that can be used with parents or with other teachers and shown. That's something really good.

Okay, I'll answer more questions at the end, I know there's a few more there so let me move along to the next one. So the next one it's Socrative, I like to call it sock-rative. And it's a lot like Kahoot! The difference is that it's really good if you want to give a quiz and gather data on it. And you can do true or false, yes or no answers, and you can use it in real time. So, if you're working with students who fringes like as Karen was saying have a cognitive issues or maybe younger students, you might want to have true or false questions, or yes or no questions to make it really simple. So not to over complicate it because we have to consider, we work with different ages and people with different disabilities. But this is a good one because it takes the information, you can use it in real time and you can also make quizzes and it will grade them for you. That's really the strong part about Socrative.

And if you learn Kahoot! it's a natural progression, it's very simple. Okay, so what about students who have motor based deficits. Yeah, that's hard, I mean you can do some of these on a tablet, that might make it a little easier for some of them. Obviously if there's motor based deficits you could allow more time for it, but you really have to set up some form of switches or some sort of keyboard that would be, a way for it to be easier for him to do some of these. It might be using it on a tablet might be easier. But certainly that's a challenge that we're getting the question from. Okay let me move on to the next one. Okay, got to go back. Plickers, okay, Plickers is a good one that I really like. It's different than some of the other ones and when I first heard about it I was like no, it couldn't really do that. You literally hold up your phone and scan the whole classroom and it gets the answers of the students doing it.

And they literally just have to turn the card to get A, B, C, or D to get the right answer. And obviously with certain populations of you working with younger students or students maybe who have cognitive issues you may give them less choices. But they just have to literally the piece of paper and they have to turn it and whatever letter they have on top is the answer. And then you scan the class with the phone and then you get the, you would scan the answers and you would get the correct answer from that, okay. So we have a video on that, that we're going to start, okay? And you can see I have. Okay, so that's the video. So, I'm getting a lot of questions of how do you deal with different populations? Y

ou know, most of these are web based so if you use like distance technology, a lot of times it comes with a different operating system to make it better. I know they had one before about visual impairment, another one before about people before with cognitive issues so you would have to set some of that up ahead of time but most of these will work across multiple platforms. A lot of them are web based so if you work with a certain population with certain challenges whether it's a visual impairment or something else, you would have to set up the computers obviously to be conducive to that. So I'm going to go to the next one. We just did the Plickers video. Okay, this another one, and this one hasn't been around quite as long, and this is a good one, I like this one too. It's gaining in popularity recently, it's called Quizzizz.

And it's a lot like the other ones, it's actually very user friendly, I think that's probably why it's gaining popularity because it's simple. And not only is it simple, the maker of this particular program made a tutorial where you click on it and it shows you how to do everything right away. So if you had no idea do it, you just kind of click on it, and it points arrows to everything and explains what it does which is huge. Because if you're ever using a software program and trying to figure it out, and you're like well where is that? I just want to click on this one thing and then you had to look for it, it's very frustrating. It's one of the reasons people don't want to use computers is because of that frustration.

So, this is a good one and I have a short video on it that I'd like to show you. Okay, I don't see the video playing, so I'll go on to the next one. So we'll go onto the next one. So most or all student response systems are very similar so if you learn how to use one, the next one's going to be much easier to use. So if you've used Kahoot!, Socrative and Quizzizz wouldn't be that different. Plickers is kind of different but Plickers might be the easiest one to learn. It's almost hard to believe that it's so simple, even cutting and pasting the names. I mean, that's just amazing that it works so well. And the fact that you can just scan the room with either your phone or an iPad, most people have a smart phone and you can use the app on different platforms so that you can scan the entire room. It makes it a lot easier to use that one. So that might be the most user friendly one. So, let me just move on.

Okay, Quizlet. Quizlet's one of my favorite ones out there because it really truly gamified learning. And they used to talk about years ago having a database of 15 million flash cards. And I think they've got to have more than that now. If you go in and any subject that you're doing, even if it's preschool and you're teaching people the colors or it's something at graduate level, it seems like they have everything, like anything that's a common piece of curriculum. Like let's say you're teaching the water cycle, they would have a bunch of flashcards. But not only would they have flashcards on it, you'd have multiple ones to choose from. So a lot of them you can just go in and find curriculum and the good thing about the flash card for Quizlet is you can share them out to everybody. It does give instant feedback and it gamifies it. The only thing is the free version doesn't give the teacher data so if you need that instant data, that instant feedback then you pay a little bit of money. But it isn't that expensive if you need that with your students. But you can have each student working and learning the same material individually by clicking on different games. And it teaches in the same thing like a number of different ways and they're all gamified it's one of--

- [Announcer] This is Quizlet, this is one of my favorite websites for students to study with and they can use it either in small groups or individually. It's often used individually. They have this massive database with flashcards, you can create your own which is really easy to do and you can share them out. But in this massive database of flash cards, they have pretty much all the common stuff that you would find in education, or most of it at least. So, what I did was I looked at the water cycle and I'm going to click on learn. So it says what is in the ground and then it gives you choices, I can click ground water, and it says correct. You can use flashcards. Do it in writing.

When water in the form of ice, rain, sleet, hail, or snow falls to the Earth, that'd be precipitation. So then you could write that in as your answer, and then you click answer and it would give you feedback. So, precipitation. Okay, so then you would type in the answer. So, where does water go to get safe to drink? Treatment plant, and I just type the word treatment plant, I'm not going to do that obviously. And this is kind of cool, it generates a see those little pictures and definitions and you just type in each of the words. Just another way for students to test their knowledge on something and to learn something. Just automatically generates a quiz. This is one of my favorite ones, the matching games. So, fresh drought ground water, treatment plant, here we go I can drag that over there and it disappears. And let's see, it's when the sun heats up water in reverse of lakes and it turns it to vapor. Evaporation, possibly, yup. And you get the idea, you match them up and there's a timer, things like that and people can compete. They have gravity. Get started.

Now they have the word dropping, you have to type definition which is kind of really hard considering the definition is long, you'd have to get it pretty exact. But you get the idea, with something with a much shorter definition you could probably more realistically do it. It is still a fun game. And then there is, this is Quizlet Live, and you can have teams of students compete in a group to see how well that they know the knowledge and to try to compete with each other. The only thing with Quizlet is that it gives the students really good feedback, it's not necessarily giving the teacher good feedback, so you got to consider it a study aid, an exciting dynamic way to break people down in groups, or people work individually. But as far as giving the data back, it doesn't necessarily give you all that instantaneous data. One of the things I want to point out, they do have a paid version, that isn't that expensive, and if you get that and you want to track students' progress to get more data for yourself you can. And there's a few other things in there that will make the experience a little bit better. But the free version is really really nice.

- Okay, so that is Quizlet. Quizlet is one of my favorite. It's great in a smaller setting, you can have students memorizing material, especially a lot of times you're dealing with students who have memory issues and that kind of immediate feedback back and forth and doing it many different ways it kind of gamifies it. Also gives decent feedback. You can have each student working individually at their own pace. That's a really really great way to do it. One of my absolute favorite programs, and it's free they do have a version where you pay a little bit more money but most people are happy with the free version. I highly recommend using Quizlet if you haven't ever used it before. If you think you'retechnology it's one of the safe ones to use because it's so good. So let me go onto the next one.

So the Quizlet video, we saw that one. Okay, technology gives instant feedback, but it is not instant feedback. 'Cause there's two others that I wanted to mention. The next one is forms and it doesn't give instant feedback in a lot of cases. It does, like you can have a form and then it can tell you the answer after the fact. But I try to make the point, that anything that we do where you can shorten the cycle of them getting feedback is very powerful. It makes a difference. So even if it is instant feedback, and I bring up forms because if you use Kahoot! and Socrative, and if you use Quizzizz, they're very similar and actually if you're Google School and you use Google Forms that is actually more complicated than Socrative or Kahoot! is when it comes to filling in the question. And it does a lot of the same thing. It just doesn't necessarily, you could use it in real time, it's a little bit harder to use in real time but it is something where it shortens the time that response takes place but that the same time with shortening it, it doesn't make it always instantaneous like some of the student feedback. But it's also important to know that any time that you make the response and the feedback faster it still helps. So even if it's not instantaneous but it's quicker than the traditional way of doing it, it's a plus. So let me see if I can get to play this video.

- [Anna] John, this one seems a little bit long, and we're running out of time.

- Yeah, you're running out of time, you want me to skip over it? I was thinking the same thing too. I'll skip over it, we'll go to the next one.

- [Announcer] This is for a mobile device, if you can look at iTunes and if you can look at Google Play they give outstanding ratings to this app. It is essentially like a scantron machine in your hand. You take a test that's basically, you know one of those little circle bubbles like the old scantron sheets and you can do 20, 50, or 100 questions and you just type in what the answers are, like they have that chapter one, and then you take a picture of the person's test and it corrects them all for you instantaneously, you can email it to them. You can have it printed out right then and there, or your could obviously show someone. It is literally that simple. It's literally that simple, see they just hold it over the sheet, and it grades the whole thing.

And by doing this you can give real time feedback to your students. You get 100 free scans to test it out to see if this is something that you really want. You can go in and enter in a class. You can enter in students, you can type the names in manually, or you can import them. CSV's a type of file format that you can use with Excel, it can be used with slides. It's a file format that can be exported from your databases, you could manually type it in if that's what you wanted to do, if you found that easier. Or you could simply import it and you would upload a file, and it gives you basic directions. Whatever you feel comfortable with. It's not as difficult as one might think, but the ideas with Zipgrade that I really like is that you can go in and you can give your students instant feedback, you can give them a sample test with say ten questions on it and this way they'll have awareness of how much they actually do know, because a lot of times with the younger you are, the less awareness you have of how much you actually know and what you're capable of doing.

And this can give them that real time feedback that they need. Now obviously, if it makes your grading go quicker, and you give it back to them a week sooner that also helps and get to give them feedback sooner. But I tell people to do this as a way as a teaching tool to give them feedback not just to grade your papers, and you can use it to grade your papers which is fine to as well. But this is a very powerful tool if you're using it for instant feedback. You can even email it to them, you can have it, if you have a printer set up the correct way, you can have it printed out from your mobile device. You can email the students who want it paperless, so you have a lot of options to give the feedback, or you could just show them, bring them up one at a time and show them as they're working on something else, exactly how much they got right and how much they got wrong. It's a very powerful tool.

- Okay with Zipgrade what I always tell teachers to do is that if they use Zipgrade, if they give like a practice test let's say ten questions to students and grade it and show it to them immediately. 'Cause test anxiety is big and it happens to everybody. But if you're struggling in school I think, I think it can happen as well, sometimes it can happen more, especially if you're trying to succeed. So, if you would give say a practice test, you know, ten questions, and you gave it with Zipgrade and then. Well you gave it on a regular piece of paper that they fill in the little bubble diagram. And then you took the picture with Zipgrade and then you had given that feedback and that would help with the self awareness.

And it's not instantaneous like when they're not getting the answer after they answer each question, but if they answer ten questions and then you're able to take a picture and grade their test and immediately show them, and point out which ones they got wrong. In a small group setting which we get in a special ed classroom, I think that'd be beneficial and it worked well in a regular classroom, as people were finishing you just, you know hold the phone or tablet over the paper and show them, and that could make a very big difference. So, one of the things I want to point out at the end of here, is that what the future brings. One of the things that I'm seeing like in virtual realities they're having virtual reality out there, where not only you see things, like I've seen it where they have virtual field trips, schools have this where they use virtual reality as part of an education thing, and you go on a virtual field trip. I know one of our middle schools you can go to Mount Everest and you know, well you don't actually go there, you put the headset on, you can see what it looks like there and so you can have a virtual field trip.

They're making, there are devices out there where they can make it where you interact with things that aren't there as you're in the virtual reality and the thing I point out with this is I want to make people think five six years ago these student's response systems were something that were very expensive and were out of the reaches of most educators. Now you can go online, you can sign up on five different websites and get it for free. Or if you do decide to pay money, it's not that much, it's very affordable for a school to get for a classroom teacher. So imagine what they're going to have in five years or ten years, and imagine what's going to be out there that's engaging for the students. So I always point out that it's very important for the future to keep up with this a little bit so you can engage the students, because there's only more that's going to be coming out in the next couple of years. Do you want me to take questions, Anna?

- [Anna] Yes, let's who had one, what have you find work groups screen reading users who are blind?

- Screen reading users who are blind, pretty much all operating systems, all browsers now have something for screen reading. What you could use is what comes a lot of times the browser like Windows has it built in where you can zoom in on the screen and I know people who work with the blind, you can go in and change the contrast and actual wind it, in Windows you can change the contrast as well. That's usually the first thing we do is we zoom it in. And the same thing is built in the iPad the same thing where you can have it where it zooms in on the iPad and you can see things better. That's usually the first line of defense, if you're going beyond that, then you're talking about buying a program or device I mean the past I've used things like Zoom Text. But I would say most people are usually happy with using the built in ones that come in with their home computer. What's the next question.

- What about creating a video for feedback with these students, you do something like Flip Grid.

- Flip Grid is a really good, I love Flip Grid. At first I didn't understand why it was so popular. But there's so many different types of Flip Grids you can do, you can ask a question to parents and have the parents answer it and show it to the students in school. You can ask a question out on the internet, on Twitter, and have strangers answer the questions then show it to the students. You can have the students answer questions and then show the videos of the students or just have the teacher grade their answer. Yes, that is a good way. I don't think of it in terms of instant feedback in the same way but yes that instant engagement, interaction, and getting that attention face to face. I mean that's huge, that's definitely a part of what I've been talking about. I definitely recommend Flip Grid.

- What about students who have motor based deficits and struggle to control fine motor skills, how do you support when the body needs prompting?

- Well, you can use some of the build things, that's something really set up ahead of time, I mean, there's various things that I've used for that I mean, you can get a joystick for a PC, you can get a joystick for an iPad if that helps. I mean you can set up switches but multiple buttons can be hard, you know finding different keyboards like for instance a Chromebook you can plug in a larger keyboard if that helps. Those are usually the best things to do for it. There is assistive touch on an iPad, there's some things you can do. But a lot of the prices of all these devices have come down. Getting a joystick for an iPad or for a PC, they go for like a couple hundred dollars, they're not thousands of dollars. And then if that doesn't work obviously there are people who can move the screen, the mouse by moving their head. There's one in my book, I'm blanking out the name of it, that you can actually get it doesn't cost anything, but there are other ones that cost a lot of money as well. But you really need to set something up ahead of time to do that. And you would have to integrate that obviously if you're using one of the websites that I showed.

- Okay, and then Gloria's asking is Quizziz just performative assessment or also for semitive?

- Quizziz?

- Mhmm.

- You can do a formative assessment on that one. You can do a semitive one too, but you can do a formative, yeah.

- Do you know if Mentimeter as been tested by screen reading software?

- Which one has been tested by screen reading software?

- Another participant had mentioned that one, so you may not have the answer to that.

- No, I don't have the answer to that one. A lot of the students that I work with who use the software that comes free on it, but I guess if you work specifically with that, you might be running into special programs. But I don't know if these have been tested with them. Because they're web based, so if you have something that works with websites that you're comfortable with, then that's probably the one to use. Any other questions?

- I think that's all the questions so far. I think we've got everyone's questions now. If you take a moment to fill out our survey, we'd love to hear from you. When you complete the survey you'll be taken to a certificate of participation if you're interested in that. Thank you very much, John. That was a great webinar. We'll be posting everything tomorrow, or at least by Monday. We'll send out emails to everyone when everything's posted.

- Well thank you for having me, it's been a pleasure to be here, and I'd like to thank everybody who joined us, who spent this past hour with us and joined us here at the center of technology and disability. It's been a pleasure giving this. My website's free, if you want to go and look up all the things that I've cataloged, please go there and certainly some of the other webinars on the website for the center for technology disability as well.