Supporting Students with Dyslexia: Standards, Accommodations, and Strategies

In this webinar, AT Specialists Diana Petschauer and Kelsey Hall demonstrated AT tools to support students who experience dyslexia with regard to developing goals and choosing appropriate accommodations as part of students’ IEPs. Presenters also discussed interventions designed to close achievement gaps by providing well-researched programming that is explicit, systematic, and multisensory in nature, with plenty of opportunities for practice. (Get the slides.)
 

Transcript: 

- [Voiceover] Good afternoon everyone, thanks for joining us for this CTD webinar. We're pleased to welcome Diana Petschauer and Kelsey Hall and they are joining us to discuss Supporting Learners with Dyslexia: Standards, Accommodations, Technology and Strategies. I'm gonna pass it over to them and they'll get started.

- [Voiceover] Thanks Ana-Maria! Hello everyone, we're presenting your webinar this evening. I'm Diana Petschauer and I'm co-presenting with Kelsey Hall. We're gonna switch over to the slides for a brief introduction and to get started, so thanks for joining us and use that chat.

- [Voiceover] Also we want to remind you after the survey, after the webinar please fill out our survey and at the end of the survey you will have the option to get a certificate of participation, so thank you very much.

- [Voiceover] Thanks Ana-Maria. So as mentioned please make sure you fill that survey out at the end. You will receive your certificate of participation and it's certainly wonderful to get the feedback. If you benefit from this webinar and any of the other webinars from CTD. So let's get started, this evening we have a lot to share with you. I am Diana Petschauer, I'm a RESNA certified assistive technology professional and founder of the company AT for Education. We have 11 consultants with various specialty areas, who travel daily throughout many states in New England. And on a yearly basis, all year round we travel nationally and internationally to provide assistive technology evaluation and training, as well as professional development workshop, webinars, et cetera. So feel free to check out our website later for more information. I am co-presenting this evening with Kelsey Hall.

- [Voiceover] Hello.

- [Voiceover] And she is an expert in assistive technology, augmentative communication, as well as literacy, and I'm going to hand it over to Kelsey to tell you more about herself and to get us started this evening with the webinar.

- [Voiceover] Hi everybody. I'm so glad that you're all joining us today. My name is Kelsey Hall, I am a teacher of the deaf, and a speech language pathologist. I'm also a certified Orton-Gillingham instructor through IDA, The International Dyslexia Association. And I have founded the company Bridges to Learning, and that focuses on speech and language evaluation and support for literacy and language development. And I'm excited to be here with all of you. So today we're going to be talking about dyslexia and supporting students and learners with dyslexia. We'll be looking at standards, accommodations, and different strategies. Some important information about dyslexia, it is very common, and this is something I think a lot of you are probably joining us tonight and today because you probably have students or people that you work with who have dyslexia. This definition right here that you can see on your screen is through the International Dyslexia Association, and you'll see that on your screen, there's highlighted words here. Specific learning disabilities, neurobiological, fluent word recognition, poor spelling, decoding. These are all characteristics of individuals who experience dyslexia and specific learning disabilities is a term you might hear especially if you work in a K through 12 school. We tend not to use the word dyslexia, you don't hear that very often, but you will hear specific learning disability and usually it's fated to be in the area of reading. Basic reading skills, comprehension, and sometimes writing as well. There's a lot of different ways to talk about dyslexia and we'll get into some of that to, but this is a definition through the International Dyslexia Association that kind of outlines classic profiles of individuals who experience this disability. So a lot of times people have been throwing around are there different kinds of dyslexia? And the interesting thing about this is, people are throwing out multiple hypothesis. You might have heard of single deficit, double deficit, triple deficit dyslexia. If you hear single deficit dyslexia, often it relates to difficulty with phonological processing. So manipulating sounds and words, kind of your ability to break words apart, write it down, put them back together, alter them. You might have also heard of double deficit dyslexia and this related to phonological processing challenges, rapid naming. Rapid naming is specific to quickly, effectively, and efficiently decoding text. And often you might find students experiencing deficits in two of these three areas, one of these three areas, or even all three. So you might hear triple deficit dyslexia. Orthographic this is related to how students connect sounds to a specific symbol. And usually individuals can have orthographic challenges are usually pretty solid in phonological. So students can experience a number of challenges, and that's a hypothesis that's been put out there and people should be aware of. So, what do we know, given what we know about dyslexia how do we support these students?

- [Voiceover] So instruction matters, we want to make sure that we're specifically looking at instruction that is structured, multi-sensory, explicit, systematic, that they practice often and they have the opportunity to practice often. Diagnostic and prescriptive meaning it's personalized to that specific student, progress monitored, and cumulative. And we're going to be talking about and explaining all of these different aspects of the specific instruction that benefits all students, but especially students that have dyslexia. Kelsey, can you tell us about the National Reading Panel?

- [Voiceover] Yes, so the National Reading Panel is the year 2000, came out with a relatively lengthy report, and we do have a link to it later on in the presentation. There's also a link to, and a big part of this is there are five major areas that were identified as needing to be instructed when you're considering reading instruction. And that explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, so again, going back to thinking about how sounds are made, how being able to tap out syllables, break words apart, and then also phonics instruction. Letters and connecting letters to sounds. Also fluency if you're struggling to be a fluent reader, you'll have difficulty with comprehension as well. So all these are response related and we'll be definitely speaking more of them as we go along, but there are five areas are identified again, phonemic awareness, phonics instructions, fluency instruction, vocabulary instruction, and comprehension are the five pillars as we they like to call them. But the big part about all of this is that it isn't just for readers with disabilities, these strategies work for all learners. It's a universal design for a learning principle. So a big part of this, many of you might be from schools where you're evaluating students for dyslexia or for specific learning disability in the areas of reading and writing. More common than not we find that people are waiting to evaluate students, when they're noticing that these students are really struggling much earlier on. But I know that in places that I've worked, there tends to be a wait period and finally around third grade you start seeing referrals for students. You know the student is really struggling to learn to read. You can't figure out necessarily why, they're just a little bit behind, but regardless if a student is behind in reading don't wait. Don't wait to evaluate that student and find out what is tripping them up with regards to learning how to read and be an effective reader. Overall the biggest take away from this is there's no difference between children with reading disabilities who do or do not experience achievement discrepancies that really when it comes down to it, even if there's a small gap in learning how to read. All children make gains with intervention. So waiting until second, first, second, third grade can really be a detriment to a lot of students because so many of those foundational skills are learned very early on. So we don't want to widen those gaps, we want to close those gaps. So in reality, it doesn't fully matter what age you're looking at. Once they're in school you want to make sure that if you're noticing a breakdown, intervene, get in there, let's close those gaps. Don't wait for them to fail. Starting intervention early, the Matthew Effect. I don't know if anyone has seen this diagram before, but when you're thinking about reading skills and typical learners who crack the code right way through instruction and the gains that they make in reading. You can see in the red part that with foundational skills, they tend to slide. Their reading skills are solid but they need to move. Students who are struggling with reading, represented by that blue line, who are struggling with those foundational skills, they'll continue to see that gap widen between their peers and reading will become more important to them as they move along. The Matthew Effect, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. We want to close those gaps, that's a huge gap. So we want to make sure that students are gaining foundational skills right off the bat and being able to keep up and maintain those skills alongside their peers to crack that code more readily.

- [Voiceover] Thank you, Kelsey. And I'm just going to make everyone aware that for some reason my laptop is not connected to the webinar but I can still see the presentation through my iPad and I am trying to reconnect, so hopefully I'll get back on to some video here as well. And Kelsey, if you could hit the arrows to the right during my portions of it on the bottom of the screen there just because I don't have...

- [Kelsey] Absolutely

- [Voiceover] That right now. And so the people who are at CTD running this webinar know that I'm trying to connect again. So now we're going to talk a little bit about No Child Left Behind, and the Every Student Succeeds Act. So we know that now the Every Student Succeeds Act, ESSA has recently changed No Child Left Behind, and so what does that mean when it comes to the instruction that you can provide for your students, and what does that mean in regards to specific instruction as well as the funding for what's going to benefit all of your students and those who have dyslexia? So in this slide we have a comparison between No Child Left Behind and Every Student Succeeds Act for those of you who may want more information. In regards to both acts and what the differences are and what does this mean for you in regards to education. And this of course is US based for any of you who might be joining us from another country other than the US. And so you can see the differences here, I don't need to read all of this to you, but some of the bigger differences is the ESSA does cover preschool, pre-k and No Child Left Behind did not, so this is really wonderful news because as Kelsey mentioned, you can diagnose students young, and you want to diagnose students young and you want to intervene young, you don't want to wait until there's such a gap that at third or fourth grade you already have a student who does not want to go to school because of their reading or dyslexia, or their writing gap or any of those things that would cause anxiety and stress. And want that student or make that student not want to attend school, and not want to be a learner. And so we know we can intervene early, and you want to be able to do that. The other great peek to the ESSA is the funding, and the choice. So the states have the autonomy to develop the intervention and to choose the interventions and the professionals that are going to be providing that. They have a choice now as well as the funding available to hire those professionals and to implement the technology, the assistive technology and those professionals as well. So really be aware that you have more support now through the Every Student Succeeds Act.

- [Voiceover] And this is really critical for those of you working in schools and you're looking, you know to support students in a really specific way. Especially in the area of reading, this is really critical. And we're going to talk a little bit about this in terms of when you're thinking about who do I hire? There's a lot of people out there who are certified for a variety of things. We talked about Diana is an assistive technology professional, and she has gone through quite a bit of training and support to be able to obtain that certification. I myself am a Orton-Gillingham certified instructor, and I as well have been through a lot of training to obtain that. And so when you're considering using this funding to hire people to provide these services to a very, really needy population of kids. We really want to make sure that the people that we hire are qualified. And so how do we do that? We have some examples here for you about what you might want to look for and consider. I know Diana talked a little bit about the assistive technology professional.

- [Voiceover] Yes, so certainly, there is a certification for assistive technology. We put the information here as well as the website. Through the organization RESNA, R-E-S-N-A, rehabilitative and assistive technology of North America. And you want to make sure you are specifically asking the right questions about individuals, their credentials, their experience, whether or not they are certified, versus a certificate or a few hours. What are their specialty areas? Where is their experience, and in what type of environment? And this is all going to depend on the students that you're helping as well. But know that there are professionals, and there is a certification and important to look for those things when you're hiring individuals.

- [Voiceover] Absolutely, and the same goes for Orton-Gillingham certified instructors. There's a lot of laws, legislature going through different states right now to ensure that individuals with dyslexia are identified early and that they're supported well throughout their academic careers. To be able to provide Orton-Gillingham certified instruction, there's a variety of schooling you really have to go through. So one example right here of a program is through enlist, it's multi-sensory instruction and you can see on this chart how much support 45 hours of course work, 90 hrs, depending on whether you're going for teaching, instructor, therapy. You're observed consistently. So there are a lot of programs out there certifying people for ya know, Gillingham state program, or Orton-Gillingham itself and just making sure that you're hiring someone who's not just Orton-Gillingham trained, but Orton-Gillingham certified. Because there's a big difference between that. You want to make sure that these students are getting really quality instruction, and that the person, because this is preferred program being it's diagnostic in nature, being able to have enough knowledge to know where students are at as they're progressing through a multi-sensory program, and what they need. And being able to diagnose that and prescribe appropriate instruction is very critical to their success. So these are major considerations, asking questions to people who, they're looking to hire support for students. Know what governing boards are involved and what their qualifications, and what their qualifications are to get those certifications. Understand who certifies their programs. You can even ask people to come in and do a demo of the service. Ask for their credentials, their certification, their experiences, references. These are all really, really important. Two to three day certification programs usually those are more training, they do background knowledge. They're not necessarily certifying an individual in a particular program so I would be weary of those. We really want these students to have the quality, quality instruction so that we can see them succeed. Because a lot of them are very bright students, and they could be put on to a very successful path.

- [Voiceover] And now we're gonna talk a little bit about the Common Core. The Common Core State Standards. To dive in a little bit, there is a link here on this slide for you to get to a specific document regarding the Common Core State Standards and how they support your students with disabilities. Including those with dyslexia. And so whether or not you are a fan of the Common Core State Standard, some of you have your own opinion on whether or not you like the Common Core State Standard. Regardless of your opinion, this slide here highlights what the Common Core State Standards are there for in regards to your students with disabilities and those with dyslexia. So know they do support, they do have the support, the instructional support for learning, based on the principles of universal design for learning. And we know that UDL supports our students with dyslexia in the multiple ways that you are engaging those students and allowing them to present information in multiple ways. And we think about their strength in regards to audio and visual and kinesthetic and tactile. And so UDL principles and being able to use those types instructional supports is supported under the CCSS. And also again, the flexibility in ways that that information is presented by the instructor and by those educators who are trained. These educators who you want to be trained in UDL, who know how to engage all their students. Engage all their learners, and reducing the barriers in their instruction, by not just lecturing, and not just providing text based materials, but also providing multi-sensory, multimedia ways for those students to learn, and really use their strengths to learn that information and be able to present that in multiple ways as well. And certainly to force the appropriate accommodations. So in regards to the types of accommodations that we're gonna talk about as we go through this presentation. And we will talk about the various accommodations that can support students with dyslexia, and Common Core State Standards do support those accommodations, which one of them includes assistive technology. So again, CCSS does support the assistive technology devices and services to ensure access to the general education curriculum. And we know that there are many types of assistive technology, some of which we are going to be demonstrating later in the presentation for you. That do support students with dyslexia and its really good to that note that Common Core supports that as well. And then this last bullet here for you to check out later if you do have access to the presentation now if you clicked on the link, as well as after the presentation. And there's a link there for a wonderful TedTalk called NotceAbility

- [Voiceover] Yeah, it's really great

- [Voiceover] It is amazing and if any of you have been moved by a TedTalk, you definitely want to check this out. And he has some straight facts as well as inspirational information and it's a wonderful TedTalk for you to check out. I've put the link there for you to go back to at another time.

- [Voiceover] Just before I move on to more information about the Common Core. What I want to challenge you all to do is to kind of consider briefly what we've been over in terms of the National Reading Panel, the five pillars that they found to be really critical in terms of instructional practices for teachers and for interventionist to tackle for students who are learning to read. Just because I want you to see if you make connections, and talk about them in the chat. Make connections between what the National Reading Panel found, what we know about instruction, and how the Common Core is laid out and you'll see that as we go through. So in looking at Kindergarten right here. I'm gonna kind of move through these three slides, I'm not gonna read every single standard. But these are the ELA standards from the Common Core right in front of you. So recognize and produce rhyming words. Blend and segments onsets and rimes for single-syllable spoken word. You'll notice these bolded titles, phonological awareness that's one section listed here. The next section is phonics and word recognition. So getting into grade level phonics skills, word analysis skills, being able to decode. One-to-one letter sound correspondence. These are all kindergarten Common Core Standards. Things that you would teach in kindergarten. High-frequency words, sight words as their common called, commonly called. And then we get into fluency, right? Emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. Students asking questions, kindergarten level. So thinking about those bolded titles. How do those relate with the National Reading Panel found? These are really important connections to make because this is so critical for our readers who are struggling readers, and could potentially have dyslexia. These foundational skills are what we found to be supporting students to make their reading skills, their foundational reading skills solid. So the Common Core has aligned itself in some ways to the National Reading Panel findings, because they're tackling communicative awareness and word study. They're tackling phonics and they're tackling fluency. And they're doing it in a systematic way as we found is really critical to ensure that these students, or all students are being taught in a way we know teaches them quality foundational skills. And it builds upon itself, so again, I mentioned earlier here's the link for the full report, and it's like almost 500 pages. So I also posted the link for the summary if you don't have all of that time to read 500 pages. But, I also want you to if you have some time look at first grade, second grade, third grade they're all of the ELA standards are all laid out in this fashion. They tackle each of these areas, and that's so critical because it really gives a guideline to support teachers and creating their curriculum to match the needs of all learners. We know that all students can learn these lower order skills and build upon them to then reach higher order stuff like reaching comprehension. So, very critical and something to think about. So feel free to talk about that a little bit. I know people have different feelings about the Common Core, but once we're thinking about how children learn to read, and the way in which they learn to read. These are some really important connections to make. So overall, what does this mean for students with dyslexia? We talked about that a little bit. But really, it means a lot. If we're kind of able to follow these adult mental progressions for reading, things that we know as students move along and are learning those foundational skills. If teachers are instructing these skills in the general classrooms, we're hoping that that gap doesn't have that chance to widen and instead will seem more of a closing of the gap. So although some students who experience reading based disabilities, dyslexia, may still need additional support outside of the generalized classroom. That is totally possible because some students experience slower processing, or have multiple disabilities. And that is okay, but if we're able to provide these students with significant support, not only in the classroom, but also additional support outside, and we're teaching students in the systematic way and making it fun for them, we're setting students up for success. Regardless of whether or not they experience a disability. So again, don't hesitate and don't wait. If you notice that a student that you're working with is struggling, that's the time to start to intervene because all children, and all students benefit from instruction in this area and intervention in the area of reading. To be able to grow those skills, so don't wait.

- [Voiceover] And we're gonna talk of course about considerations for IEPs, Individualized Education Plans and personalizing learning for all students, and certainly the IEPs are what helps you to personalize learning for your students with dyslexia. And many other countries have their own version of a personalized learning plan for students with dyslexia or disabilities. And so in those plans you want to consider specific accommodations including assistive technology in the IEP. And we're gonna talk more about that as we go along through the presentation and demonstration towards the end. But when we're thinking about accommodations in the IEP, there are five big ones. There are five big ones that you want to make sure in that IEP, or personalized learning plan for your students with dyslexia. And we want to remember that when we're choosing accommodations for our students that we are still holding high expectations for those students. That we know that when we have high expectations, that we have high achievements. And so we want to keep that in mind, that yes, we are providing accommodations for students for them to access the general curriculum and succeed. And that we're going to make sure we have high expectations from those students as well. Because we've shown, research has shown, that that it's going to help your students who succeed the most, just to make sure that you do have high expectations for those students. And so when we look at the first accommodation, the first of the five biggies. We do have assistive technology there, because it is there as a significant support and accommodation for bridging that gap. So we're going to talk about the specific literacy instruction and reading instruction and writing instruction, that it's so critical to provide students with dyslexia. To make sure that we are closing those gaps in literacy and getting them to the strongest, greatest, highest level of reading and writing that they are capable of doing. And certainly they are very capable if we start with that intervention early. But we also know that we want those students to be able to do the same activities, the same textbooks, be able to read the same textbooks at the same grade level as their peers. We want them to be able to access their worksheets and handouts, and research on the internet. We want them to be able to access all of the curriculum and instruction that their peers have access to, and many times that's done by using assistive technology. And so text-to-speech, again, access to grade level content and vocabulary. We do see those barriers to content knowledge. Comprehension, fluency, decoding texts, decoding support for them. And certainly speech-to-text, reducing barriers for spelling errors, some of which can be found on these slides as I'm reading them. Fine motor difficulty, if only I used my speech-to-text, and also encouraging the use of high level vocabulary. So when we have support for writing such as speech-to-text, or word prediction which is the next one. And we will be showing examples of all of these, you're really supporting students to be able to use those words. When they hear them, they know what they mean. I always use the word photosynthesis as an example. A student hears that used by a teacher, they know what photosynthesis is, but if they go to write a paper or to do a project, they're not going to try and type or write that word because it would be very difficult for them. And so instead, they just omit it, they leave it out. Whereas when they have assistive technology to support them, they're going to use those high level vocabulary words that they are capable of using and understand by having other means of presenting their knowledge. Also support with study skills and executive function for those students who struggle with organization, task initiation management, scheduling and reminders, and so we want to make sure that we are supporting those things. Sometimes with assistive technology, sometimes low tech with graphic organizers, things like that. Note-taking-support really to support the independence for students who have other people taking notes for them. They can certainly be independent in taking notes with assistive technology. Which supports their comprehension, processing, repetition of information, and especially retention. And most importantly, assistive technology helps provide access to AEM. That acronym Accessible Educational Materials. Those are their textbooks, their worksheets, their handouts, those learning materials. All those things that they legally have the right to access and fundamentally of course, need to access the same as their peers. And that is done using assistive technology. And again, we're going to have some of those demonstrations coming up later in the presentation.

- [Voiceover] Go ahead.

- [Voiceover] I was going to say there are some other biggies as far as accommodations that Kelsey's going to speak about.

- [Voiceover] Another really big one out of the five is pre-teaching. And also post-teaching of information. A lot of the students that I've worked with, who experience dyslexia or reading based disabilities really benefit from word study, going over grammatical concepts, vocabulary, that sentence sense impact sentence structure and understanding some of the complexities of those prior to diving into an activity or a reading. Especially thinking about assistive technology and having access to that. If the student doesn't, and many students I've worked with previously haven't, I often find vocabulary can be quite limited just because a lot of new students have had such negative experiences around reading that they just don't. And that can really impact vocabulary for a lot of... So it's something to consider, pre-teaching is such a great accommodation and it can be really hard to do to being able to navigate that and with regular education teachers, special education teachers, special ed tutors, can be really helpful for students to make sure that they feel success going into something that can be quite challenging for them. Extended time is another one. And this is really a lot related to time to process, and a lot of these students are struggling to read information, comprehend information, partially because it's difficult for them to read it fluently and with ease. So many of these students find themselves reading, and rereading, and rereading. And so when you think about that with something, they're given a packet of information, that can be dreadful for students. So they really need a lot of time to move through that material, and again the use of assistive technology to support them with this, this can sometimes break that barrier as well. So extended time is a common one that you might see, but it's also really critical to make sure that our students feel success, and they don't feel rushed. Because that's when they're, that's when they start to fall apart. And this can be on tests or assignments, working again those, with regular education teachers be able to support them in making those texts, or tests, or quizzes accessible to students. And being able to allow them the time to work through whatever they need to be able to access them independently. So, this is a big one, reducing the amount of problems. So thinking about how to work with students who have dyslexia is really important to consider not simplifying information. Many of these students don't need modification to their learning, they need accommodation. They don't need the application of learning to change, but they might need a little bit less introduced at a time or more targeted questions to get at what you're asking. Offering word banks is often a great way to support students with dyslexia. And again, assistive technology to support, except for the area of math it can be really challenging for a lot of our students. So, a huge caution to just consider one thing for my students know are you testing their reading, decoding, and fluency, or are you testing their knowledge. And so being able to work through that. Do we need to really, truly simplify this or are they really understanding this, or do they have the capacity to really work through this material and being really careful to not undermine their intelligence in that way. Because a lot of these students have a lot to share, and a lot to say. Kind of like what Diana was talking about before. They're skipping over that word like photosynthesis because they might have a hard time reading it, or spelling it, but in reality, they understand that concept just as well as if you were allow them to take an oral exam. So this is very critical.

- [Voiceover] And then lastly, the fifth biggie as far as accommodation in an IEP or personalized learning plan is that alternative representation. So again, looking at those UDL principles, universal design for learning. Multiple means of engagement and expression. How else can knowledge be shown, and how do we build upon the strength of all students. And again, these are interventions, and assistive technologies, and principles as well as learning instruction that benefits all of your students, and supports those with dyslexia and other disabilities to be engaged and learning all of the same knowledge that everyone, all of the teachers want the students to learn certainly. But how can that knowledge be shown? Not only considering the instruction that's presented to students, not just the lecture, and not just text based materials. Not just handing out worksheets to students or having them take notes based on a lecture, but how can you be presenting to students to engage them using their strengths, if you're using audio and you're using visuals and you're using tactile materials for them to be really engaged in their learning. And then how can knowledge be shown? So how do your students then let you know that they have the knowledge that you want them to gain that they have access to that knowledge and that they can show you what they know, and it doesn't always have to be writing an essay or taking a test, it can be a presentation, a multimedia presentation, a video. Students love to use technology, whether it's their phone or tablet, or other means to take videos, do interviews, art, so many of our students are creative and there's so many ways for them to create art and demonstrate their knowledge. A poster, role-playing, we have a lot of great students who are interested in acting and role-playing and be a really great way for them to show their knowledge. When you think of things especially like when it comes to history and things like that, reenactment always engage us if we go and visit a reenactment and learn about things in history and that's so engaging and the students would be great at role-playing to show their knowledge. Verbal tests and answers, so you know that your students again, they know what they want to be able to say, but maybe physically, the act of handwriting is very difficult for them, whether it's fine motor, difficulty with grammar, or spelling. And so allow them give their answers verbally to you, and have that conversation and that dialogue. Remember that you want to be learner centered, very personalized, what are they really inquisitive and want to learn about that is fit into the curriculum instruction and you're doing, and let that drive them. Let them want to be learners. You need to remember that student choice and that's student's voice and that you are allowing those students to really be engaged in their learning and be excited about it. And let them be excited about how they're going to learn it and how they're going to show that knowledge to you. If you have a lot of students sitting there with their heads on the desks, or on their hands, or falling asleep and you're constantly saying wake up! Why are you so tired? Maybe you need to change up your instruction, and really consider how those students learn best.

- [Voiceover] I also think it's really important to consider what the goal of that education is. Are you really working on, what do you want them to show you? Do you want them to show you a written essay? Is that how you have to have them give that answer or response to you? Or are they able to just show their knowledge in another way, what is the goal? Are you wanting to see their critical analysis or are you wanting to see physically their writing? So being able to consider that as your asking things of students. There's a time and place for all of that, but really being able to allow for that conversation to happen with teachers and with students because all students regardless of their disability might learn in a different way, or be able to show you something stronger of their knowledge.

- [Voiceover] Absolutely.

- [Voiceover] So kind of moving into more of a strategy for intervention and instruction and really thinking about individuals and their experience with dyslexia. I hope some of you have been able to see that the Scarborough's Rope before, a lot of skills for reading they're not sea salt in a silo, they're interwoven together and all of these foundational skills really weave into a strong skilled reader. Because we need them to be fluent, and we need them to comprehend that's the end goal. We read, comprehend, and share ideas, and learn new ideas, and learn new things. It can be really hard to be a fluent reader with solid comprehension skills if your foundation is really shaky. So if you picture a bridge, and the pillars of the bridge are kind of, pieces are missing, you're gonna have a hard time getting over that bridge. And really being able to get to the end of where you're trying to go, so when pieces are missing that can be very challenging. So again, looking at these components of the rope that are really important and very challenging often for a lot of our students with dyslexia. Language structure, syntax, sentences, semantics, words meaning, a lot of those. Phonological awareness, again this is one of one of the deficit areas for individuals with dyslexia. Decoding skills, being able to read and take apart words, connect words together. Sight recognition, so words that often people say they don't follow the rules, if you really want want to be kind of a geek like me and get more into etymology and where words come from, you'll find that they often do follow the suffix rule but for the purpose for any of our students we call them sights words, 'cause a lot of them don't follow the rules, but many of them do. Skilled readers again, the fluent, execution, and increasing automaticity so when readers are beginning to read they tend to sound out every sound until they see those words frequently and it becomes more fluid, and we're trying to constantly create that automaticity. And all of these pieces that you see are so critical to getting a reader to become fluent and then be able to comprehend what they're reading and start thinking about what they're reading on a greater level. So again, we have lower order skills like phonemic awareness, phonics and decoding, fluency, moving up to some higher order skills like vocabulary, semantics, words and word meaning. And then comprehending what you're reading. Because again, that's the end goal, to comprehend that text, and to be able to share that with others and converse about it, share ideas 'cause that's why we write and that's why we read. So moving from lower order skills to higher order skills again, the National Reading Panel, what they found is really critical instruction for students, and then being able to look at how that relates to what we found in the Common Core and the connections to see what the National Reading Panel found and the goal of the Common Core, and kind of providing that more systematic approach to introducing reading skills or foundational skills for reading, and again, looking at this, those lower order skills are critical in order to be able to reach the end goal. So when you're thinking about direct intervention, it's really important to consider what are the components of direct intervention that cuts in all of those skills that we've saw in the reading rope, Scarborough's Rope and considering the National Reading Panel's findings. All of these 10 things are critical to make sure that you have in a lesson and that you're touching upon each of these tasks in one lesson in order to move through them from one specific skill and generalizing that skill and to longer passages for reading. So again, Orton-Gillingham certified instructor, there's many programs that are Orton-Gillingham based. I know that we have attached a matrix for dyslexia intervention and assistive technology matrix. At the end of that matrix, there's a variety of programs that I put in there that follow multi-sensory approach to directly, and explicitly teaching reading to individuals who struggle, but really for all students, a lot of them can benefit from these supports. And also I want to draw your attention to the bit.ly link at the bottom of this slide. Diana and I went through and did a mock Orton-Gillingham lesson for all of you. So if you click on that link it will take you to a variety of videos and a Google docs folder, and you'll be able to, if you have the time and desire to go through the entire video, our series of videos to see the progression of the Orton-Gillingham lesson, and how explicitly cumulative it is. And how we target each of these areas. Phonogram drill, blending drill, sight words, guided discovery, new words, sentence reading, and going all the way up to controlled passage reading. And doing that in one lesson. Usually this will take about an hour, and that's really critical to know that having 45 minutes to an hour to be able to do this is very difficult in schools I know, but it's also critical to being able to see success in students. So we're just going to quickly go through and again, so the last slide had a link to all of the videos. Each slide I go through has a link to a specific video that I'm referencing. So the first one is phonogram drills. A lot of these programs, programs like Wilson's, Tyner, Explode the Code. A lot of the ones that I listed in that matrix. You click on that link for the matrix, you can see those at the bottom. They often have some sort of progression for this. So phonogram drill is sound/symbol, you'll see in the picture right there, I'm showing cards to Diana and we're going through and she's giving me all of them, she knows those, those cards. And the important thing here, is that you're only targeting known concepts and that you're providing opportunity for discussion around those concepts. And it's really, it's a quick drill. That's why it's a drill, two to three minutes no more, and you're targeting those challenges. And you'll see that Diana has a glitter pad in front of her. And that's that multi-sensory input that's so critical. Sometimes I have students writing in sand, I have students writing on the glitter pad, I have students writing, using kinetic sand, play dough, all purposing to be able to put extra, and to get extra input as their making those letters while they're saying the sound out loud. So again, you can click on that link to see the whole video. Another component is the blending drills. So right after I went through those cards, you'll see there's a series of cards in front of me. I'm flipping those cards over, and she's able to decode and read through each word. A lot of them are nonsense words, because I'm flipping cards over, but this is really important again, only known concepts because this is cumulative, okay? And you're only building upon skills they know and introducing one new skill at a time. Or reviewing one skill at a time. Or one new skill at at time, and then you're embedding constantly, embedding review from previous lessons. And you're usually trying to target things that were tricky, so that you're able to solidify that for students. So we're blending in this one, we're gonna automaticity. Review words, so always, always. There's a review component to solid lessons that are explicit and systematic in nature. We try to, I know how I was trained, 15 to 20 words, review words and you're working on fluency too so you're also timing these students, and working during talking about drawing attention to errors that they make and using the rules that they've learned to remediate some of those challenges. So I use highlighters frequently, and I know my students really, really, really love erasable highlighters because when they make mistakes they don't like it to stay there. They also really just enjoy the fact that you can erase a highlighter. So anything fun that you can incorporate into that is really critical. You'll see that I'm holding up kind of a wood block, it actually comes apart. I use this for prefixes and suffixes as well, so you can write right on it and erase it and students really love it when you're talking about onset rhymes, being able to show blends. This is a time for you to review concepts that weren't stable and you're constantly doing that. There's very systematic. Then we have sight words, learned words, however you want to call them, frequently come from the Fry list, the Dolch list. I've used phonetic analysis to look at these words, really tearing apart. For example, the word word, right? O-R usually says or, but in this one's it's saying er. So speaking about it, and drawing attention to that for students and then having them use multi-sensory approaches to write in sand, build those words with play dough. Put them in shaving cream, sky write, use their arms gross motor skills and get them writing those words and those letters and sounds in the sky. Plenty of opportunities for practice is so important too. So they might need to see these words frequently, and often my students will master these words reading, but really struggling with them writing. So phonetic analysis is really excellent for that. Guided discovery, this is the meat of your lesson. You'll see in the video that Diana and I did. We were doing a review concept so it won't be a true guided discovery lesson, but you'll be able to kind of see, I talk a little bit about in that video, so if you click on that bit.ly link. But this is really important because you're guiding with students to discovering what they're new concept is for that day. You're only instructing on one new concept and they're very specific on how they're introduced. So you're allowing students to ask questions, you're asking questions to students to guide their understanding and to get them to auditorily hear a new sound and think about that sound. Just visually see and explore new sounds, and then you're going through an explanation process with them, and a lot of them will discover what the new concept is on their own. And have some really interesting things to say about it so this portion of the lesson, instead of just telling a student this is what we're doing, this makes it so much more meaningful for them. And they make a really strong connections, and it makes it really hard for them to forget. And then you're moving on from there and you're giving them plenty of opportunities for practice in the remainder of your lesson. So sometimes, it's not a new concept that you're providing guided discover for. Sometimes it is a review concept, and that's okay because again, this is diagnostic and prescriptive in nature. If you have a student who's not ready to move on to a new concept, then you need to do some review and you need to be able to recognize that, and have that training enough to know. We're not ready to move on because this isn't solid. And if we know, we know if we move on the shaky pillars of our bridge aren't going to be able to hold up that student to be able to be a fluent reader. So we really want to make those pillars solid. Then we move on to new words. So these words all incorporate that new concept. And again, you're timing their fluency. Although I will caution, some students really struggle with rapid naming, being able to retrieve sound symbol and for some students, I don't time them in this regard because it can be very stressful for them. They're almost spending too much time focused on that fluency aspect. So if I'm really trying to get their decoding solid, sometimes I'll forgo the fluency whereas other students are absolutely in love with that aspect of it and they love to see their time increase, or decrease. So that kind of all depends on your student. But again, if you're targeting fluency that's going to be really important. And again, you're drawing attention to those errors and a lot of times students don't mind in my experience seeing those and correcting those because they have so much knowledge at this point that a lot of people don't. And they have a way that they can talk about words and think about words, that they didn't before. And a lot of them see success with it. So not thinking about it as that you're constantly drawing attention to their errors, and they might feel badly about it. I've seen quite the contrary for a lot of my students. And then finally, we started the very beginning with sounds symbol and now we're all the way up to sentence reading. This is important that you go through an entire lesson in one setting and you're not breaking lessons up or removing parts of lessons. All of these parts are really critical, which is why it's critical to have enough time to execute these lessons appropriately. But we're already up at sentence reading now, so all of these sentences that they're practicing have the new concept, but are also including old concepts as well because again, you're trying to make sure that those are solid and they're recognizing those concepts in connected texts as well. So again, you're drawing attention, you're doing fluency, this is appropriate as this is for older students sometimes who are learning more about morphology, word meanings. Sometimes I forgo fluency and focus instead on phrasing and thinking about which is actually apart of fluency, but thinking about how they sound when they read. And thinking about thinking. And that's important too, and you'll kind of be able to feel that out as they're working with students. Phonemic and morphological awareness. So you'll see I have on the table in front of Diana in that picture, a block from the LiPS Lindamood Bell Phoneme and Sequencing Program. Which is also referenced in that matrix at the very end. But you'll notice that Diana has her finger and she's pointing, she's tapping out sounds. You notice there's no letters, so I could have given her the word cat and she was tapping out all the sounds she was hear in cat so ca-at and then we're manipulating that. So it's not phonics based, there are no letters involved in this, it's all auditory and it allows you to manipulate sounds or parts of words. So root, prefixes, suffixes, Greek combining forms, all of these things. And this aides the student in being able to hear and think about words as they're put together and taken apart. And then as students get older, they're really doing this more from morphology so words, word meanings and taking and modifying roots, prefixes and suffixes. And it gets really interesting to see how students process this, but those blocks for a lot of our students Use blocks, or some sort of manipulative to be able to help them visualize how many sounds they hear or parts of a word that they hear can be really helpful. Because it's a lot to hold to hold in memory, and sometimes memory and that rapid naming is effective in our students. We're almost at the end of what a typical lesson plan would look like. The beginning part is heavy on reading. The end part of the lesson, focuses more on encoding or writing. So you start with sound symbols, so you provide a sound and they're writing the letter that corresponds to that sound. Or sometimes I would say a prefix and they'll write the prefix down. Then you move up to the word level, you'll have knew words because you started a new concept today. And in Orton-Gillingham we use tapping, a lot of programs use tapping. Wilson's uses tapping, Wilson is Orton-Gillingham based. You'll see in the first picture I have my hand up, and we tap out, every finger gets one sound. So that helps students to work on their encoding skills. So that they know, oh I heard this sound, and this sound is connected to this letter. So they tap out the sounds, and then they tap out the letters that corresponds to those sounds. And that really helps them before they then go to write on the paper. So you're trying to do as errorless as possible. Then you're also moving on to review words. And then sight words, those learned words. And then you're moving on to sentence writing. And these are all really important in being able to make sure that students get experience with sounds, with symbols, with words and more of a connected text. And then finally at the end of the lesson, the last thing you'll be doing is controlled passage reading. So this is really, depending on your student, the student that Diana was a student in the very beginning levels of Orton-Gillingham, so her passage was quite short because you only want to include concepts that they've learned. So in this lesson that you'll see, we were looking at digraphs, so two letters that come together and make one sound. For example, like s-h. So her passage was quite short because at that point we only covered so much material. So as students move along, their passages become lengthier and lengthier. So as I said here, it's a heavy emphasis on new concepts, although some of these words will include review concepts. But often if you find a passage for students to read, you don't want them to have more than five words that are unknown, based on the rules that they've learned because then, you'll frequently find that they'll be rather disfluent and that could be at a frustration level for them. And then of course, the end goal of reading is always comprehension. So when you're thinking about reading passages, you always want to follow up with comprehension questions. And I always ask questions that are more analytical in nature, requires going back into the text to consider those answers. Some explicit and some implicit, and that really helps students to be able to navigate, oh, I have to think about what I'm reading while I'm reading. Because that's maybe not something they've experienced, because reading has been such a challenge. So, those are

- [Voiceover] Sorry, go ahead.

- [Voiceover] Sorry I just wanted to say prior to moving on to the making connections, I just wanted to emphasize that each one of those slides as Kelsey mentioned, has a video that goes along with her explanation and they're really great videos if you want to see the specific instructions that is involved in Orton-Gillingham because it really is, it really contains all of those things that we spoke about. As far as personalized, and specific, and all of those components that Kelsey mentioned in the video, they're really great if you want to check those out afterwards, you have them as links in the presentation to click on and check them out. And also the multi-sensory piece , that as I was in the lesson myself, and really have previous experience from providing support in my previous years in special education and providing the support for students who are using OG programs. But it'd been so long, several years and just realized again, how much the multi-sensory piece is so great and with the blocks, and the sand paper that I was touching. And all of the different ways that I was engaged in learning, I think that if it's just such a great component of the Orton-Gillingham instruction is that it's not just reading and writing, but all of the components. Especially the multi-sensory, the kinesthetic, and that that tactile.

- [Voiceover] Yes, and I do want to say I did see a question around how should a lesson be and I just wanna say that Orton-Gillingham lessons or programs that are Orton-Gillingham based usually run about an hour, 50 minutes and that can be really challenging in schools. But this is were the advocacy comes in for your time, your time with students and being able to navigate that. It's really important that you're able to get through an entire lesson in one sitting. Because you're moving from lower order skills to higher order skills. So they can see the progression of that concept that you're instructing as a whole. I've advocated in schools I've been in. I need at least 45 minutes with my students, that's very critical. And so again, with the new legislation that's going through hopefully that will be able to support some schools with being able to access providers to be able to do that. So about 50 minutes is a typical lesson and upwards of an hour. Orton-Gillingham lessons will end with 10 minutes of book reading. That's usually what is appropriate. And again, you don't want to split these lessons up. So, making those connections. We've talked a lot about the foundational skills needed for reading, we've talked a lot about research the National Reading Panel has found, and I encourage you to look over some of those documents. We know what works for struggling learners, and we know that what works for struggling learners also work for skilled readers. These are all really critical things to think about as you're in a school, and you're trying to support struggling readers. So, again, I suggest make sure you get trained, provide training in your district can be really hard, but it is critical.

- [Voiceover] Moving on.

- [Voiceover] Absolutely, moving on to the fun part, the demonstration. And so as mentioned we do have assistive technology demonstration for you this evening. And what goes along with those demonstrations is the AT and Intervention Matrix Handout. I know Jackie put a link to it in the chat as well. And when I start sharing my screen, I'll explain that matrix a little bit more as well. But it is broken down into the apps and assistive technologies that we're gonna show you this evening between Google and iOS. And I'm going to start, and then I will be sharing my screen to show you things on my laptop as well as on my iPad. And then we will move over to Kelsey and she will be demonstrating some assistive technologies as well before we finish out with the rest of the slides on the presentation. And we will be taking your questions at the end in the chat as well. It's great for you to be communicating with us in there this evening. So we will begin to share our screen, and I will start with my laptop as soon as I see the share my screen option here. Just popping up for me from our host, thanks so much. There we go. And so I'm going to start by sharing my desktop with you. And hopefully everyone can see it alright. We're connected there, Kelsey you see it okay, yes?

- [Voiceover] Yes, I do yeah.

- [Voiceover] Great, okay. So what we're going to start with is some Google Chrome apps and extensions. There are certainly many free and low cost ways for you to be able to provide various assistive technologies for your students to start supporting them immediately for things that they may need support with. Including literacy and also subject based. And so you can see on my screen here, I have several Google apps that are downloaded. Similar to downloading apps on a tablet, but when you are downloading apps from Google, you are going to the Google Chrome Web Store, which is this icon here. The little beach ball in the beach bag. You can only download these apps in Google Chrome, that's the browser I'm in. That looks like the little beach ball. It's different from your other browsers that you would get on to the internet with. So you won't find the web store in Internet Explorer or Firefox or Safari. You need to be in Chrome, and this web store has so many wonderful educational apps and extensions for students. And I encourage you to search for the feature they need whether it's text-to-speech, organization, mind mapping and brainstorming, digital schedules and reminders. There's so many here, and 99% of them free. Some of them low cost and then subscription based, but it lets you know so you're not spending money without knowing it. And your extensions show up as little icons at the top right of your browser. So where my mouse is hovered now. And that's, the reason why they're up there is because they're an extension of your browser. So they'll typically going to effect the website that you're on which you're gonna see throughout some of my demonstrations here. And so again, on that app matrix, we go to it here, you'll notice that we broke it down by iPad app and accessibility which I'll be doing second, so those are on the top. So if you're following along with me, hopefully, I'm not making you dizzy here. The Chrome apps and extensions are the second section here. And so I won't be able to show all of the apps or extensions, nor will Kelsey, but this wonderful matrix you have access to to go back to later, if you click on the link, will bring you right to the app or the extension. We have specifically what that address is as far as the skills, the need, and then also our comments about why we pushed that particular app or extension on our matrix. And then at the very bottom of the matrix are your multi-sensory phonics based literacy programs and resources for you to get to as well. So we're kind of starting in the middle of the document, just because I'm on my laptop and that's the easiest place to start. And so you see Read&Write for Google is one of those extensions that we do recommend. There are certainly free extensions for text-to-speech. To have information read out loud if the student is on the internet, or in a Google doc. And there are free extensions to do some of the other features of this particular extension. But if you have a student with multiple needs, it's nice to have it all in one toolbar. And Read&Write for Google provides that, as this little icon here, that little puzzle piece. And so while I'm in the internet, first of all this toolbar will work for me, it will also work in Google docs, which many students are using now. And it works with PDFs. Those handouts and worksheets that students need access to in order to complete them when you do offer them handouts to read, or worksheets to complete. This toolbar works for them as well. And so one of the first options is that text-to-speech. I'm going to first unmute my laptop so you are able to hear this. And it's the hover speech icon, and then I just move my mouse where I want it to begin reading, and it does highlight while it reads aloud.

- [Voiceover] Aristotle was born Staigira in North Greece. The son of Nicomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. He was trained first in medicine.

- [Voiceover] So you can see that text-to-speech has come a long way, it's a very pleasant sounding voice, it's not robotic. This is access to grade level content for their books, their handouts, their worksheets, research material. There's certainly going to be doing papers and projects and need to research. And you can see that in the settings you can slow that voice down, you can speed it up. You can change the voices, and you have many options for turning the features on or off the toolbar as well. I'm just going to click refresh here and so knowing that you have the option for text-to-speech for your students in all environments as well as some of the other features that I'm going to point out in regards to students with dyslexia that can support them. And so one of the other features is the dictation, speech input and word prediction. I'm going to show both of those features in a Google doc, but really good to know that it's also available when they're on the internet. And why is that? Because college applications are online, job applications are online. Those things that they're going to need to fill in and they can use their voice, or word prediction in order to help their spelling and their grammar while they're doing those things is awesome. So it's great to know that those features are also available here, and I am going to demonstrate them in a Google doc. And then these highlighters. So the four different color highlighters. So when you're students researching, just like you would use a highlighter on a paper, or in a book to highlight important information. Typically they're going to read and try and pick out important information. Those two skills combined can be very difficult for someone with dyslexia. So they can listen to the information first, and say ah ha, that is definitely something important that I want in my paper or my project. And now I'm going to highlight it, and they can use just one color if they choose a color, highlight in just one color. But these different colors are really great for categorizing and organization. Maybe all important dates are gonna be in blue, and all important characters are going to be in yellow. Or they're comparing one country to another, and they're going to use one color for each country. It's really wonderful when it comes to organization for these students. And now we can select our highlights, and we can order them by color or in the order that we took them. If we order them by color, they put our yellows together, our blues together, et cetera. So we categorized, and now we have those categories organized for us by color, and at the bottom of the document you see that it exports to a Google doc, which many students are using in school now instead of Word doc, they're using Google doc for so many great reasons, that's a whole nother training, for Google. But you see here you have the highlight, and you have the link to get right back to the website or the resource where they got these highlights. So what's great about these extensions and these apps is that they follow the students Google login. So this student could be using this tool as they are logged into a desktop computer at school in a lab, or a laptop or a Chromebook at school and then they shut down, and they go home and they login to their Google, and all these documents are there, and all these tools are there to support them. And they can get right back to this resource, just by opening this document and get back to where they were researching previously. They don't need to have the same device going back and forth with them. They're many other specifics about the tools on the toolbar that can be beneficial to students with dyslexia including the simplify page. So many times your students are going to a website and what's the first thing that happens? A video starts playing, or an ad and it's distracting them. And now they want to buy the latest video game instead of reading the article that they were supposed to be reading. And so the simplified page is really great, again there's many other free app and extensions listed in that matrix that do this, like Readability. So if you want all separate apps and extensions that do these features, you certainly can find that. This is if you want all these things in one toolbar. And so you see now it simplifies this information, it gets rid of those videos and those ads, and those distractions. You can still listen to it out loud and you can simplify the information even further. It doesn't summarize it, it simply takes the important facts, the same facts that are in that article and simplifies it for less information on the page. But there are apps and extensions for summarizing and leveling text, so check that out if you go into the app store. And it did open in a separate window, so they can get back to the website that they were on. And now as I mentioned, the toolbar does work in a Google doc, so I'm just going to get rid of the information in this particular Google doc. And turn off my highlighter there, we don't need the highlights right now. So as I mentioned, if they are writing a paper, or an essay, there are a couple of tools in the toolbar that can support them with the writing process as well. If educators and instructors are sharing worksheets or handouts as a Google doc for example, they'll be able to use this toolbar. If you already have documents on your computer that are not a Google doc, you simply bring them into your Google Drive and you can convert it very easily. Don't think you have to reinvent worksheets, handouts, lessons you already have. It's a very easy conversion if you want it to work in Google, very fast. And now the toolbar is here, and you can simply click on word prediction for example. And now while I'm typing, you can see that it's predicting what I'm maybe trying to type. And this is predicting phonetically and contextually. Phonetically what may I be trying to type that could be difficult to spell, and also contextually. If I start writing about paleontology, words about paleontology are going to populate. If I start writing about baseball, baseball words start to populate. And again, for a student with dyslexia, some of these words might be difficult for them to read, and they don't know which one they want. So they take their mouse and hover over the word and they can listen.

- [Voiceover] Typically, typipod, topping.

- [Voiceover] And they click on that word to put into their document. Certainly speeds up typing, helps to reduce spelling errors. Again, we're reducing those barriers. That is exactly what you want to do is to reduce the barriers. And now the other option is the speech input. So other individuals were talking about speech input and dictation earlier in the chat. Certainly the training to use dictation is important, you want to train students to speak loud, articulate when they can, to speak in words and phrases, and practice with something fun. Something that they are excited to talk about. Don't start with something academic. Just watch them, have them watch them get their words on the page easily, and avoid spelling errors and then work from there. And this does certainly work very accurateley and efficiently with some of your students who may have a speech impairment. It does get better each time they use it. So I'm going to click on the icon, which is a little microphone headset. Now I can begin typing using my voice, and say things like photosynthesis or phlebotomy without worrying about spelling periods. I'm going to the store today period. Do you need anything question mark. You can say your punctuation or you can insert it manually. And you can see, that immediately without any training or creating a voice profile of any kind, this tool starts working for students. So it takes training on how to use it, speaking your sentences, and if you do have a student with dyslexia that also has a speech impairment, this really encourages a lot of my students and adult clients to speak more clearly. Especially when they see how much it saves time and how much it helps them with the writing process. And now of course the speech input is available on tablets and other devices as well. So really think about the tools that are going to support that learner. And then as I mentioned, there are a few other tools like voice notes. Voice notes really great. Typically teachers are leaving comments for students using this little option over here to the right. They can comment on students' work. So they received a paper from a student and they are making comments to give back to the student. They could type a comment here, and then the student sees that comment. Maybe it says, "maybe you can add more adjectives or what are you trying to clarify here". Things like that, but for some students those comments might be difficult for them to read. And sometimes when you type a comment, a student with dyslexia might take it the way you didn't mean it because we don't use emoji's with our typing our comments. Maybe you can use more adjectives. They might think their sentence isn't good enough. Or they can't read your comment, so you can leave voice notes. "I like what you did here. Maybe you could add a few more adjectives for description." You can insert the voice comment, and now again, the students get these comments no matter where they are. If they're at home, if they're in class, or if they're in the library. They can use this with ear buds certainly. They're going to get these comments from you verbally. It's just taking a second to insert it here. And then they're able to go right here and listen to that comment that you left.

- [Voiceover] "I like what you did here. Maybe you can add a few more adjectives for description."

- [Voiceover] I love the little repetitive part there from my technology. And so they can listen to those voice notes and I have a lot of students as you know, they can collaborate on Google docs together. They can be working on Google docs at the same time from different places, and they can leave voice notes for each other, so it's a really great collaborative tool. And as I mentioned, it does also work in PDF worksheets as well. So you can see that I've pulled up my dyslexia presentation here and I'm just gonna get to a PDF worksheet that I have in my Google Drive. So if your student has a worksheet that's in PDF format, most scanners that you have scans a PDF. Sometimes you're emailing it to yourself, you can send it to the students, they can save it in their drive. If you're using Google Drive, you share it to their drive and there is a great app called Snapverter from the same company that makes makes Read&Write that will allow you to take a picture of a worksheet, it does the OCR off of character recognition and you're able to use it with the toolbar. It pulls it into the Read&Write toolbar automatically so it's really awesome. So see that you have a toolbar here it looks a little bit differently. You can have this worksheet read out loud for students who need the directions read out loud to them. They don't need to wait for a person to do this.

- [Voiceover] Read each passage and ask yourself what is the author doing in this paragraph.

- [Voiceover] And then also the option to type so click on the T, put that cursor where you want to begin typing and now I could start using word prediction to type into this worksheet. As you can see that the box will appear and the same thing, I can listen to it out loud. Click on it, or I can use speech input. I'm gonna turn off my word prediction, I'm going to use my speech input here. Allot my microphone. Speak my answer. And I can listen to this out loud first to make sure it says what I want it to before approving it. So I would definitely hear a mistake, I could delete it or I can choose to approve it. And I can delete it anytime. I can go back and get rid of comments as well. A highlighter is here, desk dictionary for definitions just like on the internet, there's so many features embedded in this toolbar that works in all environments. It's a really supportive tool, really supportive extension. And as I mentioned there are other extensions to annotate PDFs, or text-to-speech, or word prediction. All of those things, there's many other options for extensions, this is one that has it all in one. But know that if you're searching that Google Chrome web store for those features, you're going to find tools, extensions and apps to support your learner. I mentioned a few others, such as, I'm gonna get rid of Read&Write here. Such as Grammarly, Grammarly is free. It works great if you want to purchase a subscription you can, but the free version works wonderful for supporting students again, while they're typing on the internet. Whether it's social media and they're supporting talking and socializing with their friends, or just in e-mail, g-mail. Or if it's in a form that they're filling out. Again, an application, or an interview or a college application or a job application. That Grammarly is going to pop up and help them make corrections. It pops up for me all the time when I'm in e-mail, and works way faster than my typical spell check. Helps me to make corrections on the fly. So again, universal is fine. I's great for everyone, but for your students who struggle with grammar and spelling, Grammarly is a great extension. Another one that I mentioned is called Visor. Visor is really great, another free extension for screen masking. So for your students who have a difficult time with, let me just refresh this here and make sure that it's activated, there we go. I stopped it before I could show it. So with Visor, you can choose the different colors that you can use and you know that a lot of your students with dyslexia prefer a specific color background while they're reading. And also the ability to track, and you can change the size of the window, you can lighten it or darken it. So this follows their mouse. You can see it tracking, helping them keep track. A lot of students with dyslexia have trouble as far as their eyes bouncing back up and inbetween or up to the next, or previous line and so forth. And so tracking can be really positive tool for them to be able to use. And you can turn this off very quickly and easily as well. So again, because of considering time, we have a lot of iPad apps to show you, myself and Kelsey in accessibility features, so please refer back to that matrix. Because we certainly can't show you all of the wonderful Chrome apps and extensions, but there really are a lot listed here for you to get back to and click on the links and check those out and read what it's all about. Timers, and digital agendas, and organization, note taking, a lot of great things there. So check those out. And what I'm going to do now is, I'm going to start my air server to show you my iPad screen, so I am connecting my iPad to my laptop so that I can mirror my iPad and have you be able to see in just a minute here hopefully we'll get it going. And then you'll be able to see the apps and those features of the iPad that I want to show you this evening, there we go. Okay, so now you're able to see my iPad screen. Alright, and so built into the iPad and iOS devices, those iPhones, iPod Touches, iPads, any size, iPad Mini, iPad Pro the large ones now that are great. You have accessibility settings. And most people don't know about these settings. Your phone can do so much more than text or make a call, for any of you who still use it to make a call. But a lot of times you're not aware of the settings that are built in, that can really help support your learner, or yourself. And so in your settings on the left-hand side I'm on general, on the right-hand side I'm on accessibility. There are really a lot of great accessibility features here to check out, but I want you to really be aware of the fifth one down, which is called speech. This is turned off by default, you have to go in here and turn it on and it's not voiceover which is the first one. It doesn't speak everything out loud. This is going to seek out a selection of texts that you or your student chooses. So when they get to a website, or they get to an e-mail, or a text message, or any place that's on the iPad or iOS device that they need to have that information read out loud. They're going to be able to do so, but you have to turn this on. You can change speaking rate, you can have the content highlighted and then when they do get to a website where they need that information read out loud to them. I'm just opening up a website for example. Two ways to do that, you can press and hold the RJ Cooper stand, one of my favorite websites. You can press and hold and move these little bookmarks and then you see speak is the third option. Have it speak out loud. And then the other option is a two finger swipe down, and then you see this. So now you see the toolbar appears and they have the option of playing something out loud, rewinding, fast forward, slowing it down, docking it, taking it out as they need to. So make sure you turn on that feature for your students. You need that text-to-speech, it's a really powerful feature built into your devices before you add any app. One of these main apps that I talk about for students with dyslexia is called Voice Dream Reader. If you haven't heard about Voice Dream Reader, it's a really incredible app that does so much and really so many features for your students with dyslexia. This is the colors that a previous student chose. You can pull in books from Bookshare, a free resource in many countries for students with print disabilities, access to math, science, reading, social studies, chapter books, novels, things that they're gonna use for research and you see here you can get things from Google Drive. Or drop off if you're using that. Worksheets, handouts, books, this is accessible, instructional materials using this app. It's nine dollars and ninety-nine cents. I just opened up a book. You can see that I can change the speech rate faster or slower, I can add voices, and there's so many voices here with different accents. Child voices, adult voices, really pleasant sounding voices. The text settings are incredible. The font and the spacing, increase the text size, make less on the page, add spaces between the characters and the lines. Really open up that text, and the font, you can change the font style of any book, any handout or worksheet, including dyslexie font if you have a student that responds positively to that particular font, but many other fonts here that some students with dyslexia or adults prefer. And so you can see you can change the text, and then you can also go into the color settings. You could just choose there light or dark. Nice to have high contrast or custom colors, where again, you can choose the color background, the spoken word, the spoken lines. All of this is customizable, you move that dot, you have the lighter or darker on that page. The text-to-speech certainly. Suddenly my volume is not on, there we go. So they can have it information read out loud and then something that's really great, a couple of great features. You can change the speed as I mentioned. But some students it's not slow enough, the app developer just added finger reading speed. So under the reading mode if you go to finger reading, it's literally as they point to the word that it's going to read to them, which is awesome. And then also, you can choose under the font settings at the bottom, you can choose screen masking or you can choose Pac-man mode. This is recently added by after research by the app developer with Harvard and MIT in regards to students increasing comprehension and fluency by having the words disappear after they're read out loud. So check out Pac-man mode.

- [Voiceover] "Loretta Lee" Freak says "I'll bet you anything she's a damsel in distress. Which, is as it turns out."

- [Voiceover] So notice that the words disappear after they're read, but you can get right back to them if you need to review. You can create sticky notes, highlights, et cetera, there's so much here, get definitions. It's really a phenomenal app for access to text. You can see here I took some highlights and some sticky notes that are audio for your students. Really incredible app to consider and the next one I want to show you before passing over to Kelsey, again, we don't have time to show all the apps, but I want to make sure I hit some key apps that are really critical including ClaroPDF. So this is ClaroPDF, it is on our handout. You can pull worksheets or handouts in from Google Drive or you can take a photo of the worksheet and work on it immediately. Because this app for about six bucks converts it. It does the OCR, convert that PDF, and then what are you able to do? You're able to annotate it, you can listen to it out loud you see the play button. We can have that information read out loud, and you can hand write. So if this is math or another type of worksheet or handout you can certainly do math, you can do handwriting. This is very messy at this angle. You can certainly erase if you make a mistake. You can type into here, and now the world is open to your students, they can type using the on screen keyboard, they can use their voice with this microphone built in. Speak my words. Or pull in a third party keyboard, if you're not aware you can download third party keyboard from the app store. I like the one called Read&Write for word prediction specifically. I'm just gonna get to it here 'cause I have about seven downloaded on my iPad. And then getting it through to the Read&Write, which is color coded vowels. You can have the dyslexie font, and it does the word prediction. So while I'm typing, it predicts, and I can listen to that word out loud. And then click on it to put into my document. So really powerful tools here, to help your students. They can save this to Google Drive, share it with a teacher, e-mail it, print it. Nothing is stuck on the iPad when you completed it. Now I'm going to stop sharing my screen and pass it over to Kelsey, because she has some other phenomenal apps to show you as well.

- [Voiceover] Okay, so some of the apps that I'm going to show you are more intervention driven. Again, I use these supplemental to Orton-Gillingham instruction that I provide. So I'm going to share my screen now. And connect you all. Okay, so. Can you see that Diana?

- [Voiceover] Not yet, it's coming.

- [Voiceover] Okay.

- [Voiceover] Okay, there we go I see it now.

- [Voiceover] Okay. So the first one I want to show you is called Speech FlipBook. This is by Tactus Therapy, and the good thing about this is so when you're thinking about an Orton-Gillingham lesson plan, when I went through the blending drill. This is kind of an electronic blending drill. So I'm going to use my fingers to click start. And then you'll see it has a series of sounds up here, kind of like in a flip chart and then you can click each one and it will make the sound. And students can sound out those nonsense words, or sometimes they call them drill words and then I'll use my finger to flip the chart. And then you can do it again with students. So you can see at the bottom of this screen here, you'll have initial sounds. So if you click on that tab with your finger, you can choose what sounds come at the beginning of a word. So you'll see I have all digraphs here. Diana and I in our mock lesson for all of you were targeting digraphs. And then you have initial clusters, so blends. Vowel sounds, you can choose again which type of vowel sounds you want to target. Final sounds. And final clusters. So in the lesson again that Diana and I went through, we were targeting digraphs and blends, initial and final blends. And you can customize this to focus on the specific sounds your students are working on. So again, that Speech FlipBook, pretty cool. I encourage you to check it out, you can invest it great in therapy. It definitely keeps students engaged. So another one I have to show you is the Orton-Gillingham deck of cards. This is by Mayerson Academy. So the very first drill that I did was the phonogram drill, and you can see here it has a symbol on the screen. So the letter C is represented, and above it it has one slash two, so one out of two. The great thing about this deck is that it provides every way that a letter would make a sound. So we know that C can say hard C, or soft C. So this app allows you to go through and do a drill, phonogram drill with students electronically and you can even see how the sound is made by clicking on videos.

- [Voiceover] So it provides videos, I think that might have been sideways for you guys. I'm sorry if it was. So you can also click key words, the sounds, and the letter name. So this is another way to embed a phonogram drill. So the last one that I want to show you is, where are we. Sound Literacy, so you'll see here I can use myself as the student. If anyone's familiar with the Lindamoon Bell Phoneme Sequencing Program, this is essentially part of that in an app. Again, Sound Literacy is what this is. The upside down E or the schwa symbol, and the cool thing about this is, you can run is what Diana and I were doing in our lesson for you all. The phonemic awareness test. And this also allows for morphological awareness too because you'll see across the top. You have, I'm touching this with my finger, you have access to the alphabet. You have access to consonant teams, so digraphs as well in here. Trigraphs, silent letters, all of these. The Floss rule, it's all in there. Vowel teams, these are all in here as well. Endings and rimes, those welded sounds. Prefixes, suffixes, and base words. So this covers level one through five in Orton-Gillingham. You could use and manipulate all of these based on where a student is at. And then of course just being able to work on phonemic awareness. So if I have the word cat, I have three blocks C-A-T. They each represent a sound. And so if I were to say this says cat, make it say bat. The student would say c-a-t. And then b-a-t. And then they could make that change really easily, and build those phonemic awareness skills. So those are some really great apps that I'm building up to morphological awareness as well. So if you're looking at prefixes, suffixes, and base words, you can kind of combine some of those. So you can have, let me find a good one. Sub. Ject. Let's look for ive, subjective! So you can play around with words, you can build words, you can talk about morphology words and word meanings. And then you can also alter words, subjective to subject. So you can play with that in this app. So again, that was Sound Literacy. The other one I showed you OG card deck, and Speech FlipBook. So I am going to stop sharing my screen. Bring it back to Diana. Okay.

- [Voiceover] Sorry, I just realized I said that entire sentence while I was on mute. So thanks for hanging in there with us, we're gonna get back to our slideshow presentation just the last couple bit of slides. If you're staying late, thanks for hanging in there. And if not, this recording later on CTD as we mentioned. And so we'll just finish up here the last couple of slides. Again, remember you want to unlock that brilliant dyslexic mind and let them shine. Build upon their strengths and their talents. And that includes personalized learning, high expectations, positive support, accessible instruction, high achievement is going to be gained by using all these things and remember to include that student voice and choice. And the best combination is that direct intervention and assistive technology.

- [Voiceover] So it's really critical, again, I want to bring us back to the pillars of the National Reading Panel. What did they find that's important? Your building that solid foundation, and assistive technology is that bridge to get students to be able to access curriculum while they're building those foundational skills. Skill building and intervention is not distinct from assistive technology. And it's really important that we see them both as working together so that students can be successful and show us what they know.

- [Voiceover] So remember that you can go to CTDinstitute.org to see this webinar recording, as well as access any of the materials as part of this webinar. And our contacts, we do want to hear from you, so please make sure you click on this link to fill out the survey, to get your participation. And if you have any questions or comments following up anything that Kelsey or I presented this evening, please reach out to us. You can contact us through e-mail, through our websites, any of those avenues, and please connect with us on social media. We are on Twitter, and Facebook, and we do provide really great information and links to so many things regarding literacy, as well as assistive technology. So, thanks for joining us. If you do have any questions that you want to continue to put in the chat, we're happy to answer them if you're staying with us.

- [Voiceover] Absolutely, thank you all for participating with us today.