Notetaking Technologies for Middle School, High School, College, and Beyond

Whether taking notes in class, gathering web research, or creating a textbook study guide, student success relies on the ability to effectively capture, organize, and apply information from a variety of sources. In this webinar, AT Consultant Shelley Haven demonstrates notetaking tools (smartpens, digital notebooks, annotation software, and multifunctional apps) to help students who have learning differences.



- [Voiceover] Good evening, everyone. Welcome to another Center on Technology and Disability webinar. My name is John Newman, I'm an Assistive Technology Specialist with the PACER Center, one of the three proud partners of this project, and today we are so excited to welcome AT specialist Shelley Haven. The title of today's presentation is Notetaking Technologies for Middle School, High School, and Beyond. And notetaking is one of those interesting topics in the field. Some topics in this field, we wish there were kind of more options available and more strategies available. Notetaking is one of those topics where kids these days have so many different tools at their disposal and so many different strategies, so we couldn't be more happy to be welcoming someone like Shelley here today to give us an overview of today's latest and greatest tools and strategies for notetaking. For those of you that don't know, Shelley works at a consulting firm and she specializes in helping individuals with learning difficulties and other disabilities that affect executive functioning. Without further adieu, I'll hand it over to Shelley here and she'll get us started.

- [Voiceover] Okay, hello everybody, and obviously we've still got a constant number of people still rolling in here. Anyway, so we're obviously gonna be talking about notetaking today and one of the first things I'm actually gonna be doing is to make sure that we're all on the same page when we say notetaking. I hope to broaden your definition of that word. And first just a little bit about me just so you know who you're talking to here or who you're listening to here. So I've been in AT for just about three decades now, mainly the last 15 years focusing on AT for learning differences, executive functioning, and ADHD, although during my career I've actually covered pretty much all disabilities, all age groups. And I do have a lot of experience with these various needs at the college level because I used to head up assistive technology at Stanford. So anyway, this is one of the areas that I'm most interested in. That's why I like researching this stuff.

So first of all, I want to point out that the reason notetaking is so intriguing to me is it's almost, especially when you get into the college level, it's almost an academic survival skill. Education at its core is you're being exposed to new information, new perspectives, or whatever. You can't possibly hold onto everything in your head, so you're going to have to capture that information for later consideration. The problem with notetaking whether it's in class or in other scenarios that we'll go over, is that it often involves a number of different cognitive processes that have to take place simultaneously, which is difficult for most people, and then if you have that situation compromised because of learning differences or executive function problems, then it becomes even more difficult.

So, what I'm gonna do is first talk about the taking of the notes and then broaden the definition into something that I call "knowledge management". So when we think about taking notes, especially in class, we're referring to capturing ideas, capturing information that is being presented to us externally, but also capturing our own responses to that information, our own ideas and thoughts and stuff like that. And the intent is to use that information later to quickly refer to like a set of grammar rules or how do I solve that type of math problem, or maybe we just need it for reference to retrieve quickly like a class schedule. Maybe we're going to review it later to study for a test, maybe we need to practice the same information over and over again so that we can memorize it. Maybe we're gonna repurpose the information for using in a research report. And by the way, it was just coincidence that all those little bullet points happen to start with an R. I actually didn't plan it that way.

But the value in taking notes is not mainly in the taking of the notes, but in the using of the notes, so in order for those notes to be really useful we also need to be able to organize that incoming information and our thoughts in a way that makes sense. We need to quickly find what we need and also be able to apply that information for any of the taking notes tasks I listed above. So in order for notetaking to be effective we need to consider these other aspects of knowledge management. So I say notetaking is the first step of knowledge management which I define as capturing and organizing what you learn so you can readily find and use that knowledge when needed. And if you'll notice, the four keywords there are capture, organize, find, and use, which brings us to what I refer to as the core of an effective knowledge management system, which is to capture, organize, retrieve, and employ. So these are, when you're thinking about tools, but also strategies to help with notetaking, I would suggest that you consider these four different aspects.

First of all, capturing. What is the information that is important to capture? How will you go about capturing that? If you think about a typical classroom, the student is, I'll just be honest, being bombarded with visual information. Some students obviously process visual better than others. You've got a lot of auditory information, whether it's lecture, discussion, et cetera. There's text, which is not only handouts, books, maybe something on the web. Also I probably should have added on that information that's presented on the front screen, that's also text. And then you've got your own personal thoughts and observations that you're having to convert into language, to either type it or hand-write it. You're making drawings, maybe you're voice recording

So those are all the different aspects to consider with regard to the capture part, but in order for those things to be useful, I need to organize these. I've got a ton of information coming in from different classes, for reading, for doing, et cetera. How do I organize and store that? Do I have an automatic organization system that puts things in the right places or do I do this manually? How am I going to retrieve the information that I need when I need it? One thing you'll find when I talk about like digital notebooks and some other options is that you can digitally flag this information so that you can say bring up everything that's related to my research report and it will automatically pull that in. That's one of the beauties of dealing with digital notetaking.

And then finally, give some thought as to how am I going to use this information later? How am I going to employ it? So for instance, if you know you're going to use it for studying or review, you may want to take it in a way that facilitates self-testing, and toward the end I'll show you a way to do that actually using Inspiration. And if you're going to repurpose it for use in a report, it's important that you capture, perhaps automatically capture where that information came from. So this is what I refer to as the core of an effective knowledge management system. The notetaking part is kind of like the capture aspect on the top there.

So we're gonna look at tools for three different scenarios. One is taking notes in class, and if you consider like I said before all the different types of information that have to be processed, and the student needing to process those different types of information, but also to decide what's important, and what's not. They need to monitor what they're doing, and this is all happening under a time constraint. The student has no control over the pace at which the class instruction is moving along and has less control over distractions, so that can be kind of challenging.

Then we're gonna look at self-study, which is reading books, articles, stories, doing web research, et cetera, and you have some control over the time there and some control over the distractions, but there's no inherent structure to that, so you have to apply your own structure. And then lastly, which is kind of a subset of self-study is a personal knowledge bank. A lot of what students learn they're going to need to reapply in the future. A year from now after I've learned how to write a persuasive essay, okay, how do I write a persuasive essay again? What was that trigonometric identity? Sign squared plus co-sign squared equals one? So the idea of having this kind of, easy-to-use access to prior information, that's another form of notetaking.

So, just a little caveat here. I alway use this slide in my presentations, and I refer to it as the technology iceberg to essentially say that there's a lot of other tech tools that we're not going to be referring to here. And we're just gonna touch the top of the iceberg and actually, probably the tip of the tip of the iceberg. If you want to look for other tools, I'm just gonna show you some examples for those three different scenarios, but there's lots of other stuff out there. So if you do want some more information on any of the stuff that I talk about or tools that I haven't talked about, if you go to my website, it's, tech potential being short for "technology to unlock potential"; I don't know why it split the line at the /A there, but it's supposed to be /ATToolbox.

Anyway, if you go to that page on my website you will see a whole slew of different tools for different aspects of learning. So what you're looking at here on the page is just part of this very long webpage on my website. And see, I can move this little green arrow around. Isn't that cool? So I'll just turn it off. So anyway, so the first thing we need to look at is what are different aspects of learning and attention and executive functions that get in the way of notetaking? Because the type of tool and strategy we use is which going to be tied to what is the obstacle we're trying to get past. So this is just a sample list. It doesn't include everything on there, but it's to give you something to think about.

A very obvious one would be this graph. You have visual motor coordination issues where the student can't write fast enough, legibly enough to get information down. Typing obviously helps with that if the student knows how to type. Auditory processing and processing speed is another important one. Very often, like I work with a lot of students who have fantastic verbal comprehension auditory skills, but the problem is they have very slow auditory processing speed, and because you have no control over the rate at which auditory information is coming at you in class. If you didn't get it down when it happened, you may miss it, so here's the idea of how can we address that.

Working memory is definitely used, that's one of the executive functions, it's definitely used when taking notes because you're having to hold information in your auditory working memory or visual working memory so that you can manipulate it and then write it or type it or distill it. So working memory definitely comes into play. Recognizing the important points, and I'm sure that a lot of you are quite familiar with this either as teachers or as parents or as students, is how do I even know, should I just write down everything the teacher says? And understanding the big picture in order to know what to capture and what's really kind of irrelevant. Attention issues, inability to focus, like after you've listened to me for an hour and a half, you probably don't want to listen to me anymore, and you might miss certain things.

So obviously ADHD, especially for auditory information can be a challenge. Then, let's see, disorganization, impatience, I mentioned a few things there. And then the long-term retrieval issue like something I learned last year but now I need to apply it now. How do I get that information? How do I pull that back up if I didn't write it down and don't know how to find it in my notes? So there are four slides, four summary slides in my presentation which you have in the handout and for those who I didn't know who was on the side, a few people have been asking about the copies of the slides. If you look down at the bottom of your window there, you will see a thing that says 'Shelley Haven handout download tech for notes" handout. That has a copy of almost all of the slides in this presentation. Not all of them. Some of them I'm using just to make a point. And so you'll have like slides like this for reference later. But there are four summary slides for these four different scenarios and you can use that for reference.

So I have two different strategies for taking notes in class, and I've put them into two very broad categories. The first one is how can we use technology and associated strategies to reduce the physical and cognitive effort of notetaking? As I mentioned, notetaking in class involves a lot of different simultaneous cognitive processes and usually what happens is, well, I can listen or I can write, but I can't do both. Okay, so anything we can do to reduce the physical and cognitive effort in notetaking can help.

So I'm gonna talk about using a notetaking template which is also referred to as guided notetaking to provide a framework for new information and also cue the student as to what am I actually looking for. What does the teacher think is important? And you can use a word processor outline provided by the teacher, a graphic organizer outline digital notebook for this. Then we're also gonna talk about PDF annotation software. The idea there is the teacher provides, or the professor if it's in college, provides a copy of notes of the slides let's say beforehand, such as the slides that you have for this presentation and then all you're gonna do is rather than having to scribe what's on the board or what's on the screen, all you're gonna do is annotate that information, essentially put down your reflections on that. Taking pictures versus copying, that's always a wonderful solution. Cameras are one of the most underused notetaking tools around. We'll talk a little bit about that. And I've actually thrown in, for a reason I'll mention, assistive listening device for students with various issues.

So let's first look at a structured notetaking template. Okay, and the idea here is the teacher is going to provide hopefully all students, not just those who have defined challenges, with a basic framework in either paper or digital form of what we're gonna talk about, roughly in what order, and maybe providing other organizational cues as to what they ought to take notes on. And obviously this framework is gonna change based on the type of class or the grade. You might provide a different sort of framework for a fifth grader than you would for juniors and seniors in high school. And if you happen to take notes digitally, then that kind of also sets up a situation (I'll show you later) that makes it easier to study and review those notes. So you don't have this particular slide in your handout there. But this is just something very simple I created in Inspiration. I could have done this in Microsoft Word.

This is actually two parts to this. I'll assume it's a fifth grade class. I realize we're talking middle school and above, but this is a fifth grade class and we're gonna be studying about clouds today, and I've already kind of provided places to say this is what you need to take away from this class. What are clouds made of? How are clouds formed? What are the different types of clouds? And you'll notice there are four spots there meaning you ought to be listening for four different types of clouds. And the second part of this also provides places for the student to write down things that come up: "Gee, I'd like to learn more about this". If they run into a place where they don't understand something, they can write that down to ask the teacher later. And I've even got a place for the assignment at the bottom here, as well. So again, all I'm doing is I'm framing the student's thinking about this incoming information.

Now, if a student happens to be more of a visual learner than a linear textual learner, they might do better with, let's say, a mind map or a cluster map as a notetaking guide. Well this is one of the beauties if you happen to create a notetaking guide in Inspiration, you can actually distribute it in four different ways. So you can distribute it as paper or digital and in a graphic form or as an outline. So you're meeting four different sets of what the student needs. How universal design of learning is that? So anyway, so this is a different type of notetaking template.

This is actually taken from the digital notebook OneNote, which we'll be talking about a lot later in the presentation. And this is a page in that digital notebook that is already pre-set up so that when information comes in, I'm writing down my notes about the lecture topic right here. When I get out of class I'm gonna summarize the top two or three points, my main takeaways from this, questions that I have; I have a pre-set place for that. When the teacher starts to talk about homework I have a very consistent place to put that. And it's just going to make studying a lot better later if you can take your notes in digital form. Of course one of the other advantages to taking notes in digital form for students who might have, let's say, dyslexia as well, is that if this text is digital text, you're creating it can also be read aloud. Your own notes can be read aloud to you later using text to speech software.

So the idea here is you've heard me mention strategies on several occasions. I'm a very firm believer that technology is there to kind of serve the strategies and this is especially true with notetaking and also with anything that's, anything that's executive function related. That you start with what is a good, sound strategy, and then say how can I support or enhance tools, support the strategies with those tools.

So for instance, when you're talking about making a notetaking template, the organizational structure in that template is likely going to be laid out differently depending on what the topic is. In literature it's going to be important that we distill information about the characters and the setting, and what particular quotes that particular character said that are important. We're talking about history, it's gonna be important to carry people, places, events, dates, and capture them in some sort of chronological order. Science is gonna be different. Math is actually very different because it's very difficult to type math notes. You can do homework by typing math notes, but it's kind of difficult to, kind of difficult to type them in class.

Okay, so the idea here is to use the technology to support sound strategies. Now I would also suggest, and this is nothing to do with technology really, is that if students are having difficulty with notetaking, that you also think about just basic notetaking skills. I've listed just a few down here. The idea of not writing down everything in complete sentences, using symbols and key words and abbreviated words, not worrying about organization because that slows you down if you have to think about the mechanics of organization, and then if you type notes, it also makes reorganization and putting it into some understandable framework later, it just makes it a lot easier.

So if we add strategies to our core, so now we've got strategies plus capture, organize, retrieve, and employ. Okay, anyway, that spells out SCORE. Okay? So anyway, so now let's look at another way to minimize the mechanical aspects of taking notes. Relieving the physical effort is the idea of the teacher providing slides, and anyway, the teacher providing the copies of the slides in advance as a PDF and just using PDF annotation software. So I've listed a couple here, a few here, that are important to recognize, and I'm gonna show you Adobe Acrobat DC and then also the PDF annotation portion of Read&Write for Google for those of you who are using Chrome Books or Chrome Extension from class.

Okay, and then so let me just move on to that. I took some screenshots of this. So this is a different presentation, I just took examples of different presentation I had done actually at Stanford recently on notetaking challenges, and we were looking at a case study for a student named Leia, you can see her name up here. So this is a copy of the slides. So I've opened this in Acrobat Reader DC which replaced Adobe Acrobat, okay? And over on the side here I have a number of different tools, and I'm gonna click the comment button, and when I click the comment button, you'll notice that I get this dandy toolbar, this dandy toolbar that just showed up on the top here with all sorts of stuff in it.

So I've got a little comment tool on the side here. I can highlight text using the highlighter. I can type text either in or not in a box using these two tools. I can draw or sketch. I can even record a voice note. This is kind of interesting. You can actually paste a voice note, a recorded voice, onto a PDF using Acrobat Reader. Actually Adobe Reader, the earlier version, as well. So let me just show you a marked up version of this so you'll notice I have highlighted certain text in here. I've added my own comment. This is kind of an interesting tool, has an arrow on it that's found over here, so I can just quick make a note to myself of hey, you got any recommendations for a single sheet scanner? And then all my annotations are tabulated or listed in order on the side here. So this can make an actually pretty dandy tool for marking up notes.

One of the other tools you might want to know about, for those of you who may be already using Read&Write for Google in Google docs because it has a number of different, interesting tools. You may not know that there's a different toolbar that comes up if you open a PDF. So this is a copy of a couple of slides I did from an executive function workshop last year. So I've got, let's see, I've got highlighting tools on top here so when I highlight text, like over here it says, "also see activation and attention section". So I've highlighted that. I just dragged my mouse over it. When I do that, this little pop-up window comes up, and I can highlight that in any of four different colors. So you can see I've done that up here. I've highlighted this in yellow. I can use the text tool, which is this thing over here, the big T, and I've added this text note. And you'll also notice that I can actually add text notes using speech recognition, that little headset tool you see there actually allows me to use speech recognition to enter information. And I can use text to speech to listen to this. And then this little thumb tack tool over here allows me to add a longer piece of text and is just marked by this little, like a push pin over on the side here. So again, teachers provide students with copies of the PDF slides and you can use these rather robust annotation tools to mark this up.

So, anyway, so I see somebody asked on the side here, "Is that Acrobat Reader or Acrobat Pro?" Yeah, it used to be, most people are familiar with Adobe Reader, which is the free thing you could always download. Well, Adobe Reader, the last version of that was version 11. They discontinued that last year and they replaced it with Acrobat Reader DC. For all practical purposes it's just a new version of Adobe Reader. It's still free, but it's called Acrobat Reader and that complements Acrobat Pro, okay? So just a couple of other things to think about is that for instructors who are using electronic whiteboards, all electronic whiteboard software has screen capture and even video capture tools built into it, so you can see on the side here I showed where to find that tool in SMART Notebook software and in ActiveInspire, okay.

Anyway, so the--hold on, I just thought of something else here. I kind of got my own train of thought derailed there for a second. Sorry. So if the teacher is using an electronic whiteboard, this is an appropriate accommodation to say, "Hey, I'd like screenshots from the board". For those teachers who might want to actually release an entire video with audio of the section, they can these pieces of software that come with the electronic whiteboards actually have that capability built in. Poor man's version of taking pictures of the whiteboard is use a digital camera, which is actually what I talk about on the next slide, to think about all the different ways in which you can use a digital camera.

Visual images, especially for students where that's their strength, that kind of reinforces understanding and retention and it's also a lot less taxing on working memory to just take a picture of something. Of course, if you just take a picture of it and then don't put it somewhere, that could be a problem. So that's why I mention on the bottom here it would be good to have a larger notetaking thing where you can drop any of these pictures. You can see on the side here I've taken a picture of the board, I've taken a picture of a lab setup, and once I get those pictures, at the end of the day I'm gonna drop those into my digital notebook, which we'll get to later in the presentation.

So this particular section I talked about reducing the physical and all these things were meant to reduce the physical and cognitive effort of notetaking. Well for a student with ADHD, and especially has a problem with auditory attention, trying to attend when there's other stuff going on in the classroom can take an incredible amount of cognitive effort. It can. And for those people who have ADHD they can tell you as much. In other words, it's taking me all of my brain power just to stay focused. I haven't got time for taking notes. I haven't got the energy left to take notes. So the idea of using an assistive listening device can actually reduce that cognitive load. It can also help students who have auditory processing issues.

The older style systems, and I'll just pull up my little green arrow here again, the older style systems, the teacher is gonna wear your typical lapel mic and wireless setup, and then the student would wear a set of headphones or earbuds plugged into a receiver. Newer systems work off of Bluetooth. You can have just a little earpiece that you're wearing and the teacher is transmitting with a separate, very small device. I had one student I worked with, she had long, dark hair and the teacher had a very indiscreet, little Bluetooth transmitting mic that she would wear. The student wore this little, what looked like a Bluetooth earpiece, in one ear under her hair. Nobody even knew she was receiving the teacher's voice directly through this system. Kind of bypassing distraction from the classroom. So that can really help with regard to auditory problems. So I'm looking here over on the side on the chat and I see all sorts of interesting conversations. I'm gonna have to go read those later.

So anyway, so let's move into the second category which is taking notes in class. And what we're gonna, like I said, you've got all sorts of types of information coming here. Is visual, auditory, textual, your own thoughts and stuff. How can I capture more of the presentation so that I can refer to it later? So with regard to audio, you could certainly record. So capturing audio to use the C in the word CORE. Capturing audio instruction is very easy. You use a digital audio recorder. But then when you have to retrieve information from that, remember the R in CORE? That's very difficult with a digital audio recorder because you don't know where to go in the recording. So that's where tools like the Livescribe pen and various digital notebooks and iPad apps come into play.

So let's go ahead and take a look at that. So the Livescribe pen is, it's essentially a digital, you can think of it as just a fat pen with a digital audio recorder. So in this particular picture I'm showing here the microphone is right here. And in the end of the pen, I'm gonna go to the next slide here, in the end of the pen is a little infrared camera. And that camera is looking at a very, almost, it's not quite microscopic, but a very fine dot pattern on the page. You can see I've enlarged this little section of the page. And it looks like random dots. It actually isn't. It's a mathematical algorithm that is unique over the whole page and throughout the notebook, so when the infrared camera sees that and the computer in the pen sees that, it knows exactly where it is on the page, what orientation the pen is in, whether I'm touching the pen to the paper, and it's also recording my notes.

I'm gonna go back one slide again. So it's recording the audio. It's recording the notes, and it's linking the two together. So actually what I'm gonna do here and we'll see if this works properly. Andy, in case I run into a problem I'm gonna look to you for help, all right? So I'm gonna go to live for my computer. I'm gonna be sharing my screen. And turn on a light here. All right, so you've seen my screen, and I'm gonna open up, this is something for later I'm gonna show you. So you're looking at my Livescribe. So Andy, can you see the screen there okay?

- [Voiceover] Yes, Shelley.

- [Voiceover] Okay. So I just wanted to make sure everybody could see what I'm doing here.

- [Voiceover] And I believe everyone else is seeing it, too.

- [Voiceover] Yes, okay. So anyway, this is my Livescribe pen. As you can tell out here on the west coast it's 2:05. And so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit a button at the bottom of the screen. I don't know if you could, let me see if I can help you to see that. There's little buttons on the bottom of the page here. And I'm gonna hit the record button with the pen. Now let's go back up over here and I'm gonna refocus this and see what I'm doing. So the idea here is I am taking notes, and I'm left-handed so I'm gonna have to hook my hand around. So I'm taking my notes in class and it's recording as you can tell right there it says recording. And so what the Livescribe pen does is it records my notes that I'm taking, my handwritten notes. It also records audio.

But the key thing is it links the two things together. All right? Now why would that come in handy? It seems like kind of a keen parlor trick, but think about this. The teacher, everybody's packing up at the end of the class, and the teacher says, "Oh, let me tell you about your assignment for tomorrow. Let me just go over this really quickly." And so as soon as you hear the word assignment, you're gonna write down your code for assignment, which is an A with a circle around it. And then the teacher says, "Okay, the first part of your assignment," let me just write a one there, "the first part of your assignment is such and such, and then the second thing I want you to do," I'll just write a two, so I'm just listening, I'm not gonna write anything down. And then the third part of your assignment is three or whatever. So now at the end of the evening when I get home, I can re-listen to that information by just touching that note, and it's going to replay the audio from what it was listening to when I wrote that. So I'm just gonna touch that A, and I'm gonna have to hold the pen itself up to my microphone so you can hear it. Do that again.

- [Pen Recording] for assignment, which is an A with a circle around it. And then the teacher says, "Okay, the first part of your assignment," let me just write a one there, "the first part of your assignment is such and such."

- [Voiceover] Okay, so let me hit the, if I just hit the two.

- [Pen Recording] So I'm just listening, I'm not gonna write anything down. And then the third part of your assignment is--

- [Voiceover] Okay, so I just stopped that there. So the idea here is so how can I make use of this? So one of the strategies that I teach students is that when they have slides being presented on the screen, just keep a running list of those slides along the left-hand margin. So as soon as slide 14 gets presented, I'm just gonna write a 14 on the side. When slide 15 gets presented, I'm gonna do a slide 15. So now when I get home, and of course I have a copy of the slides, and I say, "Gee, I really didn't understand, what the teacher was saying in slide 14," I can just go back and touch that note and it will take me to exactly that place in the audio recording. So let's go back to our main screen here and say stop sharing and then let's see. I'm then going back to this layout, I think. So it should be showing slides again here. And apparently it takes a few seconds to load. Okay, so now we're back to the slides.

Anyway, so this can come in very handy. And I'm gonna skip forward a few slides here, all right? Let me go past notability for the moment. And this is that strategy that I was talking about. The idea is for Livescribe or any of the couple of other tools I want to show you here is I take kids through actually a worksheet where we work out what they say based on you having taken notes in the past, what are the sorts of places you'd want to go back to and listen to notes? And certainly where the teacher talks about the assignment or what the main points are, defining a glossary word. "Gee, I didn't understand that". So I suggest that students have codes that they write down for that word. Where did my little green arrow go? Here we go. So for instance, if you don't understand a certain place in the notes, maybe your symbol is write down a question mark with a circle around it and then leave extra space to add notes later. You already saw me use the example of the assignment. So I can take very abbreviated notes and still be able to refer back to exactly that place in the audio recording. And then of course I'm actively listening for those things.

And then this, this was a cool, this third one here. After was really kind of neat. An eighth grader gave me this idea, that what she does is after she's used the Livescribe for recording in class, and as she's leaving class, while everything is still fresh in her mind, she talks directly into the pen and just gives, again while everything's fresh in her mind, records her own thoughts on what were the three main takeaways from this class. What are the three main things that I learned? So when she goes to study let's say a week, two weeks, a month later, the very first thing she's gonna listen to is herself a month earlier saying here's what I got out of this class. I thought that was actually a clever idea. So I'm gonna go back a few slides here now. And again, these slides for people who joined us late, most of these slides, not every single on of them, are in the handout that is at the bottom of your screen where it says "download tech for notes handout", so you don't have to write down everything on the screen. I've included a lot this information for reference purposes.

So Notability is another tool. It's probably the most popular iPad app for notetaking. And it has a number of different things built into it. So you can essentially capture handwriting, drawing, typing, audio, word processing tools such as bullet points and outline and stuff like that. You can insert different media from the web, et cetera. It even has an organizational system built in and it auto-syncs through dropbox and I believe also Google Drive now to your computer. If you have a Mac you can also access Notability directly on a Mac, as well. So this is a, I'm just gonna show you a couple of screenshots here, this is actually slightly different from the current version, but you'll get the gist of it here. So here are my subjects, let's say my classes along the side here, and then in each of these different classes, so here's one class here, here are my different pages of notes.

All right? Let's go to the notes page. So here's a notes page. And you'll notice that on the top here if I want to type I can just click the typing tool. If I want to draw I can click the drawing tool. I can highlight text. If I go over to the plus tool, this has a number of other features, one of which is take a picture. So right in the middle of taking notes I could hold up my iPad, take a picture of the board, and go right back to taking notes. But the key point for me is this audio record tool, where what I can do is very similar to the Livescribe I just showed you here. I could click that and it will record and it will link all of my handwritten notes and my typing and the pictures you take to the audio recording, so that later you could say click on that picture and it'll take you to exactly what it was listening to at that moment. So what you've done is you've captured all these different pieces and you've integrated them for easy reference later, which is very important for students with various memory issues. And then again, that same sort of strategy that I mentioned for Livescribe can be used in any of those other tools, as well, that record and link audio and notes.

Okay, so I also wanted to show you about another tool that's probably more useful for students in college because there's a number of different parts for this. I can't see a middle schooler using this. It's just, there's a lot of different things going on, let's put it this way. It's called Sonocent Audio Notetaker. And it has a very interesting way of integrating audio and slides and your own notes that you're writing. And to be honest, it's actually easier to show this to you than to just talk about it. So what I'd like to do here is on the next slide I'm just going to show you, I'm going to point out some things as to what you'll be seeing on the screen, and then we're gonna view a short video on this. All right? So you'll see in the Audio Notetaker framework I have four columns. You'll notice in the first column over here on the left, these are the slides.

So the teacher's provided me with slides beforehand and I've already input those. I just do an import and it automatically creates sections, one for each slide. There are three or two, depending on which ones you want; three other columns. There's a reference column, a text column, and an audio column. So if I wanted to in the reference column, I could tell it lift all the accessible text out of the slide and place it in the reference column. So I could do that, or I could use it for another purpose. All right? And in the text column is where I'm gonna put my own notes. And then the audio column is like okay, what are all those colored bars? Those colored bars represent audio. They're referred to as audio phrases. Okay? And so when a person is talking you'll see a bar. When they stop talking, you'll notice there's a big space there. There's no bar. So it's kind of a, let's see. What did I call it here? It's kind of a visual metaphor of recorded audio.

So what you can do is because you're getting visual representation of all the audio in here, you can then highlight that visual representation. You see this section over here? That whoever was taking these notes highlighted this section of audio in red and red over here on the side says this is important. Okay, and you can take your own notes over here. So it would probably be easiest if I just show you a short demonstration over here. And so I'm gonna go to the videos, Andy, so again, if there is an issue, I'm gonna look to you for help. Okay, so we're gonna do visual. All right, play the video. And then hopefully you'll be able to hear this.

- [Recording] So now I can start recording--

- [Voiceover] Okay, I just stopped the video. I just want to show you. This is a slightly different presentation here. And she has on the left-hand side it's the slides and then she's going to be talking and describing Audio Notetaker and you'll see the stuff come up on the right, okay? So now let's go back to that.

- [Recording] And I'll explain the recording as I go. We have separate microphone options.

- [Voiceover] All right, we're getting two versions of this playing simultaneously. I'm looking to you Andy to fix the problem. Okay. I'm getting feedback from somebody's speakers is on. All right, I'm stopping it because obviously this isn't working as intended here.

- [Voiceover] Shelley, I think you can go back--

- [Voiceover] Layout here with the slides. I don't think it's coming from me, though.

- [Voiceover] Shelley, you need to turn off your computer speaker while I'm playing this.

- [Voiceover] But anyway, I'll just use this. Yeah, somebody else's computer speaker may be on. I don't know. We're gonna try it again. Andy, we're quitting that. So I would suggest you go to the Sonocent Audio Notetaker website and look at it there, but it's a very good tool for students who, we need to go to the main page. Here we go. Yeah, I see somebody mentioned the feedback is from our phones. Somebody has an open speaker there and that might be what's going on.

So anyway, this is used to help integrate a number of different tools. There's also an app that goes along with it that can be used on iOS or Android called Sonocent Recorder, so that you can record and do kind of a preliminary mark-up of that audio text. So anyway, so I wanted to point that out. So now let's get into tools for self-study. And we're out of the class notetaking at the moment, and I'm going to take a sip of water, if you don't mind... And by the way, I'm glancing while we're doing this, I do glance over the side at the chat, but I try not to get too distracted, and I noticed that somebody put in a link for Again, just to point out, all of the stuff that I'm talking about, and the links to this and a lot more are on my website under the AT toolbox page. So anything you see in here that you need to find out more about, just go to that page. And your handout has a link to that information on the very last slide, as well. So anything I'm talking about you can easily find that information and a lot more on the AT toolbox page.

So, we're gonna talk about tools to aid self-study here. And so this is where I'm reading books, I'm researching stuff on the web. How do I capture this information so that I can easily refer to it later? So we're gonna talk about four different, five different things here, actually. One is the low tech/no tech approach, and I want to make sure that people are not thinking that technology is always the best solution. We're gonna look at stuff built into literacy and learning software such as Read and Write Gold, Kurzweil, and other such tools. And then graphic organizer software using digital notebooks, and also a scanning pen. All right. So the reason I put in a section on low tech annotation is that some students actually prefer this.

The idea of working in an actual, physical book and kinesthetically having that connection to the information by highlighting it with a marker, putting in a sticky note. I want to make sure that we don't ignore that and think that technology always trumps no technology. All right? So for instance, this is an example of a college student that I've worked with. This is the student's architecture textbook. All right? And this particular book was on heating, cooling, and lighting, and they had their own strategy, their own coding system saying that yellow equals, I'll turn on the little pointer tool here. So yellow equals daylighting. Anything related to daylighting was in yellow. Green was shading. Again, this is heating, cooling, and lighting for architecture. Blue was cooling. Purple was heating. And pink represented insulation. You know, Pink Panther owns Corning fiberglass. So, I thought that was pretty clever. And so this is their marked up textbook. And they graduated top honors in their class with a masters in architecture, so I guess it must've worked.

So the idea is, technology isn't always the best solution. Some students would like to mark up the text in the actual textbook. Okay? Now of course a lot of students are going to be using e-text, so if they also need reading accommodations, maybe because of dyslexia, they're gonna be using e-text. So we want to do what is equivalent of what I just showed you, but do it with e-text. So many different literacy and learning tools have all sorts of annotation capabilities. Highlighters, notes, et cetera. Even voice notes built in. So I'm gonna show you a couple of videos of that, and then I'm gonna talk a little bit about strategies, because strategies, using all these annotation tools without a strategy really isn't all that helpful.

Okay, so I'm gonna go back to videos here again. All right? And this time, we're gonna look at a different video here. I'll do this. Fortunately, all the other videos do not have sound on them, so that's fine. We won't have a problem with the feedback, okay? Let's see, I'll enlarge this video. So we're gonna be looking at, this is Kurzweil 3000 and I'm showing you, I'm trying to think, this is on a PC. All right, so let's just go ahead and play this. And I'll narrate as I'm going along here. So you'll see up in the toolbar on the top, there's all sorts of, hold on a minute. I'm gonna stop the video and I'm gonna use my pointer to say up on the top here there are all sorts of markers. I've got different color markers. There's actually a few I'm not showing. I can add a footnote. I can add a sticky note. I can add a text note. Even a voice note.

So Kurzweil has a whole slew of different types of tools. All right? And so what I'm gonna do here is just play the video and you will see me kind of going through and highlighting text once I get done pointing out things in the top here. There we go. So I'm gonna use my yellow highlighter and I've decided I'm gonna put all my headers in yellow. I'm gonna highlight that text there and as I'm reading this e-text I decide that the main points of each paragraph, I'm gonna decide to put in green. So we're talking about time travel and time is relative is kind of important. And also time doesn't tick by everywhere at a constant speed. Okay? So we can stop this video.

Now I'm gonna show you the kind of Julia Child take it out of the oven fully baked version where I've completely marked up this text. This is the second video. Yeah, because chefs on TV, that's what they do. They take the thing out after it's baked at 375 for 45 minutes or whatever. So what I've done here is I've employed a mark-up strategy where I've marked up all my headers in yellow. And then I decided that I'm gonna put all the main points in green. I'm gonna turn on my highlighter here again.

So as I'm reading it I'm marking up the main points in green. If I come across a word that I don't know and I need to look up the definition, I've circled that in red. I've added and Kurzweil has something called bubble notes, so I've asked some questions of myself in a bubble note. I've added a sticky note to myself to say add this to my bibliography on the side here. So I've really kind of gone to town doing this, but what is really nice about using tools that have annotation capabilities like this built in, and you'll see this in a second here, is that I can extract my highlights to a separate document.

Let's just pause here for a second. And so what you're looking at here is I can tell it which annotations to extract, and do I want to indent these? So using my strategy of yellow was headings, green was main ideas, blue was sub-main ideas, let's say, and I'm gonna indent those by zero inches, half an inch, one inch. So you can tell what I'm doing is I'm setting up an outline. This becomes a study outline. And I'm going to tell it here, so I can do bookmarks, I can do the heading. I'm just gonna race forward through this for a second. And I'm gonna click okay. Click the okay button, and it's gonna extract all my highlighted documents which becomes my study guide. It's doing this in the background. I'm gonna wait until it gets done. There we go. So there's my study guide, but it's already kind of pre-arranged in an outline form.

Now different software has, I'm gonna go back to the slides at this point here. Different software has different tools. So you'll remember I showed you Read&Write for Google before. It has its own subset of like four different colored highlighters and the ability to add notes, as well. If you use Win software on a PC, it's gonna have a different set of tools. So I'd suggest that what you do is look at each of those tools and see what you actually need in order to take texts such as what you see on the left and extract it into what you see on the right. So that's one way of capturing information. So you heard me mention strategies. Strategies to me are incredibly important, because if you're just, I've seen students and I'm sure you have too, or you may be a student, who doesn't know, well what is it that I'm supposed to highlight in here, and you end up highlighting like half the text in the book. So the idea of having, of coupling those tools, whether you're doing it manually with actual highlighters and a physical book or you're doing this with digital text and digital highlighters and such, is to make sure that you have what I refer to as an active reading strategy.

So I've listed on this page, it's mainly for reference, I'm not gonna go through it in detail, is a very popular strategy that's taught, gee, all the way through school and I've even seen classes at the college level for this, called SQ3R. That stands for survey, question, read, recite, review. There's a very similar strategy that you'll see in, I put it in blue, a little bit smaller text, called PQRST, which is very similarly preview, question, read, summarize and self-test. And the idea is that the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna look over the text. I'm not gonna read it, I'm just gonna look and see what's there, see how long it is, look at what the headings say, see if there are questions at the back of the book, back of the chapter, which ought to clue me in as to what the author thinks is important. And as I'm surveying these things, I'm gonna, let's say I use that yellow highlighter, and I'm going to highlight all the headings in yellow, and maybe some key points and some bold-faced words. I'm just doing kind of a preview of the text.

Then I'm going to take what I've looked at that and say well, what do I already know about this subject? Maybe take some of those headers and turn them into questions so that I can anticipate what I'm going to learn. Let's say I'm in a history book and it says, history book says, causes of the Civil War. So let me turn that into a question. What are the causes of the Civil War? I could reasonably expect to learn that in the text. So at this point when I go to read, which is the third step, I'm going to be actually looking for answers to those questions which I could then highlight, identify key points, supporting details, highlight those in colors.

I can answer my questions using text notes, those questions I posed to myself. And then, and this is kind of a key point, after I've read through, let's say each paragraph, each section, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna summarize the main points in my own words. And this is very important because it uses a different part of your brain and it kind of helps to force that information, putting stuff in your own words kind of helps to force that information into the recesses of your memory. And so I may use the text tools, I may use the voice notes, and just, especially, if say I'm a very good verbal learner, I'm just gonna put the voice note thing on there and just summarize what I think I just read verbally. I may never listen to it again, but doing it, that actually makes it important. And then if I have extracted those highlights into a separate study guide, I can go and pull those off to a separate study guide and review those later and test myself.

And I see some questions coming up on the side here: Any other cheaper options too? Well, you could always use the Read&Write for Google. That's like, I really probably shouldn't mention prices and stuff in the presentation, but it has a subscription base and if the school has access to it, you can get it fairly cheap, and of course it's free for teachers. It's not gonna help the students, but so there are other different options you might want to look into and if you have some questions on that after looking at my website, just go and shoot me an email and I'll be happy to answer that. Anyway, so let's move on to the idea of using Inspiration as a notetaker. So in one of my earlier slides I mentioned I think about four or five back here, I mentioned the idea of either highlighting information in the text itself, in the body of the text itself, whether that's e-text or a physical book, but in some cases some students might do better by actually lifting that information and putting it into a separate pre-defined template, kind of like those notetaking templates I mentioned. So here's an example of, I have, this is a screenshot, I've got Kurzweil for the Mac on the left, and I have a pre-defined fiction reading template on the right where I've already got categories for who the characters in the book, I'm reading Tale of Two Cities in this example.

So I'm looking at, let's see, we've got characters over here, pre-defined template, here are the different characters, here are the different events that happened, and I'm gonna list stuff as I find them. What's nice about working with something like Inspiration, I'm sure you can use Microsoft Word if you really want to. Also, most of the text here, you can just copy and paste it and just put it into that outline. So what I'm doing is I'm distilling this into some sort of an organizational framework that's going to make it easier to study later. And so actually what I'm gonna do here, I'm gonna show you kind of an extreme version of this. I'm gonna go back to my live feed, so to speak, and we're gonna go to Inspiration on this. Hold on a second. I'm getting the mechanics of share my screen, share. Okay, so Andy, can you confirm that you're looking at Inspiration over here?

- [Voiceover] Ah, yes, I see it.

- [Voiceover] Okay, good. So this is a framework of a student, and by the way, this is a real student who did this who's taking notes on World War I. Now I don't know in this particular case because it's not my student, but they're taking notes, this might have been provided by the teacher, this framework saying what was the cause of the war, what were the causes. I've already been given two clues here. Nationalism and past history. What were the effects of the war? What happened afterward? What were important timeline issues? Who were important people? So this is a framework for me to collect information maybe from my reading. Let's close this down. So this is, that framework filled out. What's important about this, and this is why I'm showing this to you, is the student, this particular student does better by putting, by distilling information from numerous sources into an organizational framework.

So what they've done is they've taken information, from whether it's the web, might have been from their own notes. In essence they are are flashcards. So I'm gonna go back to stop sharing and then go back to main handout. I've got to wait for the slides. So I'm gonna try to finish up so we'll have at least a few minutes for questions. Okay, so we're dragging and dropping stuff into Google, and here's that Franz Ferdidand, or the World War I example. So it's Inspiration as an outline and what I'm using is I'm putting on the checklist tool and using that to simulate flashcards. So what about taking notes from actual print text? Is there a tool that can do that? Well there are things called scanning pens.

So a scanning pen is like a mini, almost like a mini scanner and OCR engine. OCR is optical character recognition engine that is built into a pen which might or might not be connected to a computer. This particular one I'm showing, which is kind of an impressive model, it's called the IRISPen 7, and you can tell the person is swiping their hand across the text in here, and this is connected by a cable to the USB port on the computer. Very simple to operate. Essentially, when I swipe that pen, and you can see the little red light down here, when I swipe that pen across text, anything that it scans in and recognizes gets uploaded into the computer and is entered wherever I happen to have my cursor. So I can have Inspiration open and my cursor is in front of a particular piece of text, and whatever I swipe that pen over is gonna be entered into, assuming it's recognized properly, into that place there. So it's a way of lifting text electronically from print text and putting it into a computer.

Now, a few caveats on that. Number one, you do have to kind of hold the pen at a correct angle. There's a proper angle to hold it at, and you have to swipe at a constant speed and in a straight line. It might almost be helpful to use a straight edge and put it on the page. So if the student is not taking notes because they have fine motor issues or hand tremors or stuff like that, this might not be the best tool because it does require an adequate amount of fine motor skills. Also, it's okay for like a line or two of text or a word here and there. I wouldn't use it for scanning entire pages of information in. So I've shown you the IRISPen here, you'll see on my website I mention something called a C Pen, which is very similar. Some of them are self-contained and just capture the information in the pen.

So now we're into the third section. The third scenario which is how do I capture retrieval? So here I'm gonna introduce the concept of using a digital notebook. And a digital notebook is kind of the same as a, I just went to the next slide here, it's kind of the same as a physical notebook, you know, a binder, a spiral notebook, except for the fact that obviously since you're working in the digital world you can capture digital information. So that means I can capture all in one place, in one organizational framework, I can capture text, I can capture audio recordings, video recordings, video and audio from the web, text from the web, links to websites, pictures from my camera. You name it, I can put that in and have one consistent organizational framework for all of my learning. And because it's digital, it's much easier to organize it later.

Okay, so this is one of the advantages over just doing handwritten notes. I can reorganize, I can add more information later, I can then annotate that information such as highlighting it. Kind of similar to what I showed you with Kurzweil. I can tag that information with dates or with key words so that I can later pull up and say pull up everything that's tagged with my report, and voila, I'm just looking at just that information. So it has a couple of other tools that I think are worthwhile pointing out, one of which is clipping digital information from the web and retaining a link to the source. So let me show you, the two main ones I'd recommend for this would be OneNote, which is now available on multiple platforms. It used to be PC only. And also Evernote, which is pretty much available on any electronic device, actually. So it's actually easier if I show you this live. So once again, Andy, I am going to live here. I'm going to share my screen and I'm gonna open up OneNote. And it's opening here. It's slowly opening here. The one thing I like about OneNote over Evernote, Evernote as you'll see in a few slides is more like a digital file cabinet than it is a digital notebook. And open here. There we go. Finally, all right.

So I'm gonna go to over here. Let me just expand my screen so you can see more of it. So what I'm using this for, I could take notes in my English class, so there's that framework I showed you early on of my notetaking template for English class that I've got where I have a place to put my homework assignments, I have a place to summarize thoughts after the class, take my notes. In history class I'm going to annotate a document that I entered from elsewhere. It's for long-term, what should I say, long-term, cumulative storage of information. I like to think of it as my external brain. And actually what I'm gonna do here, I'm already in this mode, I want to show you what I'm getting to, where I clipped information from the web.

So this is information that I clipped from the web and when I clipped it, it automatically retained on the bottom here, here's the website you clipped it from. I didn't even have to do that on my own. So we're gonna go back to the slide presentation so that I can show you that and then we may have, we'll have a few minutes left for questions here. I'm gonna click that, hit stop sharing. So in the meantime, Andy if you saw any like really juicy questions that came up, thinking about those and I might be able to answer in the last few minutes here, okay? Because I haven't really been paying too much attention to the chat there. It's an executive function nightmare trying to kind of manage all these different windows open and monitor them at one time.

So anyway, so the idea is to use a, let me go back a few slides here, is to use the digital notebook as a cumulative knowledge bank of past learning. So there might be quick access reference to wrote memory facts to models of solved problems, anything like that. And this is particularly helpful. I like to think of using it as your external brain, your auxiliary brain. And it can be particularly helpful for students or adults for that matter, who have problems with organization, planning, various memory issues maybe due to TBI, some memory challenges, et cetera. And anyways, let me go through a few more slides here. And then the last feature I want to point out here, excuse me, I've got to take a little sip of water. The last thing I want to do is the idea of clipping to a digital notebook.

So you're gonna see this in OneNote and in Evernote and apparently I forgot to put a capital E on Evernote, but forgive me for that. And so what it is is I can, let me show you a screenshot of this, so here I am, I'm looking up, oh, look, Microsoft launched learning tools for OneNote over on the side here. And by the way, I'm gonna give this to those who are still online here. As a homework assignment go Google OneNote learning tools. This is something that Microsoft just released. They're gonna have a table at our upcoming Education Revolution conference in San Diego on April 16th. I coordinate the technology for that show. And anyway, so it provides tools for diverse learners such as students who need text to speech and stuff like that for OneNote, and it's built into OneNote. It's currently only available for PCs. The Mac version will come later. But anyway, I digress.

The idea here is that what I've done is I'm in Chrome and in my Chrome browser I have the little OneNote icon up here. When I click that it says, oh, do you want to capture the full page? Do you want to capture a section of the page? Or do you want to capture a full article? I tell it what I want to capture, I tell it what notebook I want to put it in and what page I want it on, and then I'm going to say clip. And when I do that, voila, it shows up in my OneNote on the proper page and it shows the link on the bottom where it came from. So at bibliography time that's going to be very helpful. And finally, Evernote is a little different from OneNote. I like OneNote because it's, I'm gonna flip back a few pages here, I like OneNote because it's laid out kind of in the same organizational framework that a regular binder would be. So it's easy for kids to grasp the organizational structure of that. Evernote is less like a notebook and more like a digital file cabinet. It's more like having, they call them notebooks, but it's more like having stacks of cards with no inherent order to them, and these are the notebooks shown.

I'm showing on my Mac here, showing the notebooks off on the side and then here are the cards that are in that notebook and then I can say, ah, pull up all the cards that are related to a particular topic or something, and then here's a particular note card, so to speak, that I pulled up. And I can put on those cards, I can put in any type of text, I can put in an audio file, video, audio recording, attach an outside file, I can do any number of things.

But I guess the main distinction I'd make between OneNote and Evernote is, Evernote's more like a digital file cabinet, OneNote excels as kind of like a digital notebook. And so just to finish up, again, my personal philosophy is that if you match students with the right tools and level the playing field for them, students can, it's just much more easy for them to demonstrate their full potential. If anybody has any follow-up questions, last slide here. This is my contact information along with a link to the AT toolbox on my website. And at this point I think I will turn it over to Andy because I know he has a few other things to say. Okay, Andy?

- [Voiceover] Yes, this is Andy and John here, and give us one moment please. We're going over some of the questions that the participants wanted answered. Also we would like to mention for the participants to please go to the survey monkey link that you see in your main window there after the presentation is fully done. It's very fast and having completed that you'll receive a certificate of participation. John?

- [Voiceover] Yeah, certainly. So thanks Andy for giving the recap on how to fill out that survey there. Shelley, here's kind of a couple questions for you that some folks had. So kind of looking at your comparison between OneNote and Evernote, one has kind of like a digital file cabinet and the other is kind of more like a digital notepad. We have a couple people asking about Google Drive and they're kind of wondering what your opinions are of using that in a similar way to say Evernote or OneNote.

- [Voiceover] You definitely could. You need to have a organizational structure and this is where the strategies part comes in. So regardless of whether your using OneNote or Evernote or Google Drive, the key thing is to first think of what's my organizational structure and how am I gonna find things when I need them? So I mean, I like OneNote and Evernote, because it kind of keeps everything in one place, but on the other hand, you can get very disorganized in those if you just keep capturing information and throwing them in there and you don't have that, like in OneNote the tab set up first or in Evernote have your individual notebooks set up first. If you want to go to the trouble you could set up a very carefully organized, thoughtfully organized I should say, folder system in Google Drive and file stuff there. And some people do prefer to do that. But from the standpoint of like quick reference of little tidbits of information like what's the screenshot for capturing a full screen on a Mac or something like that, or how do I multiply two binomials, it might be kind of nice to have a digital notebook that you can open on any device whether it's iPad, just accessing the web version, and you're just using it as read only. And for younger kids they definitely would be read only. Older kids would be setting up their own organizational structure. So. Next question.

- [Voiceover] Great, yeah, we have another question here from Ellen. She's asking if you've found any particularly helpful notetaking strategies or tools for college students with say aphasia post-stroke or a traumatic brain injury where writing and spelling skills are a barrier.

- [Voiceover] Well, obviously in that case, and to be honest, I kind of stay away from making recommendations, what are called sidewalk assessments, where you make a recommendation based on knowing virtually nothing about the situation. So the first step is I would probably need to know more about the specifics of this particular student. So I think based on what Ellen wrote there I would say the person needs to, the difficulty obviously is in rendering those ideas as language. That's where the aphasia's gonna come in, where spelling and writing are barriers. So you still want the person to have access to that information, so look at what are his best ways to access information. It might be recorded audio and then marking up the audio with some sort of a tag or note, it might be a single letter, a symbol that means something, and so that way you're kind of getting around the language issues. Especially if the information's coming in in audio in the first place, so. Other questions?

- [Voiceover] Certainly, yeah. I'm monitoring the chat here for some others. And to kind of piggyback on your answer too, Shelley. One thing to kind of answer Ellen's question is, Shelley really kind of took a look at a lot of great tools here today and what's nice is often times you can pair two tools together. So Ellen, for instance, for some of your spelling, one thing you could look is there's a lot of both applications and desktop programs that have advanced spell check. So if you do some Googling for an advanced spell checker or something called a contextual spell checker, that might give you a little bit more spelling support for that individual, as well.

- [Voiceover] And the other thing to tag onto what you just said John, was the idea of like using it with word prediction that has word lists. So for instance if you used Co:Writer along with any of those digital notebook ideas, and automatically clued in Co:Writer to what's the topic that I'm taking notes on, like Albert Einstein, so that way typing just the first few letters, let's say you typed RE, it's gonna come up with are you trying to spell relativity? Because it knows you're taking notes on Albert Einstein. So again, that's a very good point you brought, John. You can always add multiple tools. When you're working in the digital environment have multiple tools working together.

- [Voiceover] Fantastic. Well, yeah, it looks like the chat has kind of slowed down here, so I just want to thank everyone so much for coming tonight. And, of course, a big thank you to Shelley. This is a big topic to tackle and I think you did it in a really great, comprehensive way. So thank you so much Shelley for your time here this evening. And everyone, we hope to see you back here at another CTD cafe event. So feel free to check out or CTDinstitute, I should say, .org/cafe for more upcoming events. So thanks everyone for joining and we hope to see you soon. Thank you, Shelley.

- [Voiceover] Okay, you're quite welcome. I'm just reading the comments coming up here.