Flipping the Classroom to Meet the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Presented by Kathleen Fulton, this webinar, Flipping the Classroom to Meet the Needs of Students with Disabilities, highlights the use of flipping as a tool for 1) individualized/differentiated instruction and 2) more effective use of technology resources. Also discussed are the benefits of flipping for students (collaborating, finding and evaluating information and taking charge of ones learning), parents and teachers. PPT found below.


- [Voiceover] We're delighted that you could join us today. This webinar is brought to you by the OSEP funded Center on Technology and Disability. The center is designed to increase the capacity of educators, families and other key stakeholders to effectively implement instructional, assistive and educational technology and enhance the educational opportunities and experiences for students with disabilities.

- [Voiceover] Today we are joined by Kathleen Fulton, a renowned expert in using technology to enhance teaching and learning. She is the author of Time for Learning: Top 10 Reasons Why Flipping the Classroom Can Change Education. We are excited to have this opportunity to learn from her today. But before turning it over to Kathleen, I'd like to direct your attention to some of our web sharing features today. First, I'd like to encourage you all to please use the chat box to post questions or share your ideas. As Kathleen is presenting the information, we will make sure that all of the questions and ideas that are shared in the chat box are discussed as we move through the presentation. Secondly, throughout the presentation, Kathleen might ask you to raise your hand or ask whether or not you agree or disagree with something that she is sharing. In order to do this, if you look at the top tool bar in your web sharing platform, you'll see an icon of a person raising their hand and an upside down triangle right next to that. If you click on that triangle, you'll have the opportunity to either raise your hand or agree or disagree with the statement. That will enable us to be able to get your thoughts and opinions about information as Kathleen discusses these ideas. I'd like to now turn it over to Kathleen and get started with a great presentation. Welcome.

- [Voiceover] Thank you very much, Ana Maria, and thank you all for joining in. It's very exciting to be able to do this presentation for a group of educators who I think have so much to both gain and also to share in terms of your perspectives and experiences. I'm talking about flipping the classroom, but it's really all about strategies for enhancing our teaching and learning. The overview, just quickly, of what I'm gonna be talking about so you'll have an idea is to first go quickly over what's flipped learning. Throughout the presentation I'll be talking about benefits for general education, which is what my focus of my book was originally, but I have learned that there are these very same benefits are particularly valuable for students with disabilities.

So we'll be talking about that, and I'm gonna be going through. I think it's really appropriate, here we are with the day that David Letterman's last day on TV, and here I am doing "Top 10 Reasons." Top 10 reasons why I say flipping can change education. I didn't say it will change education because I think there are a lot of things that could impact it, and we'll be talking about those. So I've got caveats at the end of each of my reasons. It's not quite as flip, to use a pun, as Dave Letterman's approach, but I think top 10 reasons is a nice framework for talking about it. Then at the end of the presentation, I have a sampling of useful resources which I hope will be of value to you all. So, let's get started.

This is just a little shameless self-promotion. This is what my book looks like, and I do hope that you might find it of interest. It's available from Corwin Press at that link. This is the definition that I think is a really nice one. It's from an educator I met at a flip learning conference; an English teacher, his name's Troy Cockrum. His definition is, "using technology to deliver asynchronous "direct instruction with the intention of freeing up "class time for student-centered learning." I like this definition because each of those words is really critical. It's about technology, which is something that is now available to us to make this possible, that I don't think would have been possible five, 10 years ago.

It's about thinking about instruction with shifting time, which is why I named my book Time for Learning, because I think the time shift is a really critical piece. We're talking about direct instruction, which is a part of every educator's tool kit. But it's also about class time for the really exciting part of teaching, which is the opportunities for student-centered learning. So each of those words I think has a real critical piece in our thinking about it. It's not just sending videos home for kids to watch and then doing homework in class. That's kinda the short bumper sticker version, but I think Troy's definition here is a much more rich definition.

So, who is flipping? Well, it's interesting to see the latest survey which is the Project Tomorrow's Speak Up 2014 Survey was asking teachers about flipping. They found that 32% of teachers in their survey are flipping a class using videos they found online. Another 29% are creating their own videos. Not quite as many as the ones who are using them that they found online. What I think is particularly interesting is this latest, that third bullet, that school leaders expect pre-service teachers to know how to set up a flipped learning classroom. So they're looking for teachers coming into the classroom who already know about flipped learning. This is interesting because there's quite a bit of growth over the last couple years in these Speak Up surveys.

Just three years ago, only 23% of teachers said they used online videos, and only 19% said they were creating their own. What I think is also interesting is that 40% of administrators at the high school level have said that they saw that flipped classrooms are having a higher impact on transforming teaching and learning in their district with positive results. That's 40%, that's a pretty high number. 38% in the middle schools agreed with this. And 17% in elementary schools are seeing that it's making an impact. In that same survey only 12% of teachers and only 7% of administrators reported that they'd never heard of flipped learning. So let's try it a little bit about, see who you are and your level of experience with flipping using that icon up at the the top that Anna Maria pointed out. If you go there and pull down on the drop down next to the icon that's a person waving their hand. If you have flipped a lesson for your own teaching, can you go up to that and click on the little green message that says agree?

And let's see how many of you indicate that you have already flipped a lesson. And it should show up there on the side bar. Let's see if we're seeing that. Okay. A few of you. Not all of you. Okay, so that's interesting. I was gonna say if you have made your own lesson, created your own video lesson that you've used, can you raise your hand for agree? So almost the same number. Okay, I think that helps us see kinda where we are with our group here today. What I'm gonna be talking about, I hope you will respond with questions as they come up. I may not be able to answer them right away, but we're gonna be keeping track and we'll be answering them as soon as we possibly can to keep the conversation going. So let's go through this list.

The first one that is mentioned by every teacher who talks about why they're flipping their classroom is because of the opportunity to really have more time in class to work with students. I think this is very important because when we were talking before about direct instruction, you know there's always time that you're gonna have in the classroom where you're going to be lecturing. That kind of presentation of content is really the dominant form of instruction, but it doesn't have to take place now in the classroom and that's what we're seeing now with teachers moving their direct instruction out of the group learning space and into the individual learning space, frees up class time for the creative and engaging work for the students.

How many times have you thought, like this teacher here, "Where do the students need me most "when we're working face to face? "For practice? "In our discussions? "With assessment? "My lecture? "Application? "Remediation?" Well there's a lot of those, are all part of that whole teaching process. But really what we're seeing with the flipped teaching is this opportunity to take what's the public learning space which is when students are together in a classroom with a teacher, and take the lecture part out of that shared time and move it into the private space where a person is spending their own individual time absorbing information. Then there's a lot more of that class time, which is again a learning space with a group that's freed up for creative and engaging work with students. That's what teachers find so powerful. I think that has its roots in Bloom.

I know a lot of you are probably familiar with Bloom's theory of the hierarchy of cognitive skills with remembering and understanding basic at the bottom and moving on up to application and analysis, evaluation, and creating. Teachers are saying that they have opportunity now when they move the direct instruction out of that group learning space, move that into the private space so that the higher cognitive activities of creating and evaluating and analyzing, that's what can be done during the class period. And teachers find it very exciting to be able to have that big chunk of really higher level cognitive skills time to work with students if they've done their delivery of information, having been sent home in the lessons that are the homework lessons.

So that individual learning task in that private learning space. So it corresponds to these triangles. What's really important I think for us to think about with students with disabilities, students with learning challenges, is it gives them as much private time as they need to absorb information. And you know that when a lecture is done in class, it can just breeze right over the head of some students. Whether they've got learning disabilities or not, if they miss that time in class of the lecture then it's a real problem for them. But they may be embarrassed to say, "I didn't get it. I didn't hear it." Well with the video that's sent home, with the lesson that's sent home, it's really possible for those students to spend as much time as they'll be needing on the material.

That kinda takes us to this next big second reason, and it's really tied in closely to the first one and that is when you have that more time in the classroom it really makes it possible to do what teachers find the most powerful part of teaching, which is individualizing instruction. This makes it possible for teachers to work with their students on mastery learning. On making sure that each student masters the particular concept before being moved forward. That each student understands the underlying principles rather than being rushed along. And those who get it, can go faster. Well, mastery learning is a great tool. A great teaching tool, but it can be very hard to coordinate, to keep track of. This is one area where technology can really make a difference.

Because now with learning management systems and data analysis schools, it's really possible for teachers to have the resources they need to keep track of complicated delivery and management challenges that are inherent in mastery learning. But there's a real caveat here in that this is a skill that teachers might not necessarily have developed early on. It takes a lot of practice. A lot of professional development. A lot of resources including appropriate assessments. These are things that are really necessary for teachers to adopt mastery learning. But the possibility that technology provides is that you have delivery that could be asynchronous. Remember back on our first definition there. It's the asynchronous delivery of content, so it means that that content can be different for different students. You don't have to be giving everyone the same lecture at the same time.

Which means that you can look at your individual students to find out the best ways to present the content for them. They may not all learn best through the kind of lecture that you would do for a class as a whole. So with mastery learning there's possibilities for personalizing goals, for doing pacing differently, for adapting to the styles. And again, using the technology as a tool for these complicated management challenges. This is one of the areas where teachers are spending a lot of time sharing their information with what tools they're using. This ties it to the third reason which is learning theory. I think this is really powerful because to me it means that this approach to teaching and learning isn't just a fad, it's really tied to what we know about how people learn.

One of the things that I think is interesting came from a lecture that Donald Clark did. It's called, What's Wrong With Lectures? He went through a list, I think it might be 10 things that I've got up there, and what's wrong with lecturing in the traditional way we do it. I think it helps us to stop and think about why we may be having problems getting through to all students. Well, when we're lecturing, it's based on a set amount of time that has nothing to do with learning theory. He maintains that the hour classroom is based on a Babylonian hour, the base-60 number system, which I think is fascinating. It's not based on the fact that people learn something in 60 minutes. He notes that people become passive observers in a lecture situation. That what we all know is that our attention drops after 10 minutes, 20 minutes. For a lot of children with special needs that amount of time that they can focus is much, much shorter.

One of the problems with lecturing is that the assumption is that students are keeping track with notes. But we often don't teach note taking. It's a real critical problem for students with disabilities. You're at the back of the class. You may not hear what's going on. You may not see what's going on. You don't have control of what that lecturer is doing, the speed. It makes it so that you're farther and farther disabled by having to adapt to the kind of things that might not be at your own personal speed, style, or learning capability. And with a lecture, you lose it. One bite of the cherry, I love that term. If you snooze, you lose. It's gone. It's over. Unless, of course, you've got perfect notes. Often there's just too much information in a lecture. And then the last three points. Lectures are determined by a particular time, a particular location, and very often the presentation can be pretty grim, pretty boring.

Well, how can this be different with flipping? It's not a cure-all, but there are a lot of reasons why these points can be addressed in sending the lessons home. You can send very short lessons. Most teachers recommend that the lessons that they send home are not 45 minute lectures. There would be one minute per grade level. Teachers in the 4th grade, 5th grade, are sending five minute videos home on fractions for their kids to look at and then come back and work on the fractions in class. Just a short little chunk. That allows for that act of learning. That the student is in charge. The student can stop and pause. It doesn't have any attention fall-off. The learning is in the control of the student. They don't get it, they can rewind. You can't rewind a lecturer.

Most teachers who are doing this have taught their students a new critical skill of taking notes on video. How to make sense of what you're seeing. How to keep track of it. And then creating questions that they can use when they get back in the classroom to ask what they didn't understand so that they know what they know, and what they didn't know, they can articulate that. Of course, for students with disabilities, the possibilities of increasing the sound, of zooming in, of having better lighting, of having control over the pacing, are all critical values that don't necessarily take place in the face-to-face lecture. And again, with the ability to stop and rewind a lecture, a student has many bites of the cherry. If they snooze, they can go back. They don't lose. And again, the cognitive value of chunking content, putting the content into small modules that a student can understand at the time and understand that bit before going on.

Again, in the mastery learning model, that's really important. Then time and location are no longer dictated. A student who has mobility issues can be seeing the lecture at home. A student who is sick can be seeing it at home. A student who is having problems with they're maybe being sent home for behavior issues, they don't have to lose out because they're not there in the classroom when the lecture is happening. A presentation can be pretty bad on these videos teachers have found, but they also have found they can watch themselves and realize it and edit themselves and see how they're doing. It's a little bit scary, but they see how they teach and that's a really important point, which we're gonna get to further on.

But I think these issues about how the style of teaching is different with the technology that we have today is something that is really of interest and of value. So what are we finding in terms of effectiveness with flipped classrooms? Well, the good news is that teachers are collecting a lot of data and that classroom data is convincing them that this is a really powerful teaching tool. Some of the data I've cited here, Byron High School is a school that I first started studying. They're a pretty high-quality school. They don't have a lot of problems with their students, but there are always students who need to be learning the math and need to be learning it better. And sure enough, they found 10 to 12% gains in students reaching their proficiency. So they were moving the bar up for everyone.

A school like Clintondale High School outside of Detroit had severe problems with high percentages of students who were not passing English, language arts, social studies, math. They decided that they had to try flipping because all their other solutions seemed not to be making a difference. Kids were just not getting the information. They found that they had 19% gains in the passing rates in both English and social studies. 13% in math and 9%, I'm sorry, 9% gain in social studies. This was enough to convince them that they were gonna make their whole school a flipped school. The teachers who were flipping were asked by all the other teachers, "Whoa, what are you doing?" You know, that's making this difference. So they started training all their teachers.

They also found that students by being more engaged were having fewer disciplinary issues, and there were much higher graduation rates. This school's often cited as kind of a poster child of flipping because of the data they collected. But the reality is that we don't have the long-term studies. We don't have the gold standard studies. We hope the places like AIR and some places where some of you all are from will do some of those studies because what we don't know is really who flipping works for and why, under what conditions. So there's a lot more data to be collected. But as I say, the classroom data that teachers are collecting is convincing them at least that this is making a difference. Now, I'm not seeing any questions on here. I don't know if that's something on our screen, but I would just like to say, Ana Maria, if there are any questions that have come up now or that I should address, would you let me know?

- [Voiceover] Yes, no problem. We don't have any questions yet.

- [Voiceover] Okay. Okay. Well, we'll just move right along here. So, I think what most intrigued me about flipping the classroom was seeing how teachers were responding. Thinking about the impact of flipping on the teachers themselves because you know what happens in teaching is you're there on your own, with the door closed typically, and you don't have a chance to see how other teachers teach. You don't have those opportunities to go down the hall and be in their classrooms. I think particularly with special education, teachers seeing how the mainstream classes are working, seeing what's being taught, having the opportunities to be with other teachers. There's a real need that we just haven't figured out the best ways to address. One of the things that happens with the lessons sent home with flipping is that it can really open up what some people call the black box of teaching. It gives you an opportunity to really learn from each other by watching the videos or working together on creating the lessons.

The colleagues at Byron High School that I studied, they developed an entire flipped math curriculum at the high school level. They found that their teachers were using their professional learning communities for developing these lessons, and they were learning so much from each other because they could see how one teacher was dealing with quadratic equations. And watched the way the lessons were being done. They could also look at their own lessons and see what looked like it was working and what wasn't. Sharing their videos, sharing their results, their data in the classroom, became an incredibly powerful tool for teacher learning and sharing. What has been really powerful has been the social networks of teachers who are flipping their lessons and how much sharing is going on as they build expertise across schools. In the context of teachers who work with special needs students, I think the opportunities to develop lessons with the mainstream teachers, with other special needs teachers, is a really powerful chance to see really what worked, edit out what doesn't, try it again, but again it makes that kind of teaching visible in a way that we haven't been able to do before.

Teachers are reporting that this is what really is so exciting to them because they start to see their teaching in a much more open and visible way. Well, it wouldn't make sense to do flipped classrooms if students didn't think it was a really cool thing. This is the one thing that teachers, who are surveying their students, find is that the students really like the flipped classrooms. When you think about it, it makes a lot of sense because these are kids who were born with technology. They expect to be using technology. Particularly, if we make them park their mobile devices at home before they come into the classroom, it makes school seem less relevant. It makes it really seem like they're not doing what they do in the real world. So they really like having the opportunity to use their tools.

They're communicating with technology. They're finding information with technology. They're creating with technology, and they're fun for using it in the classroom. And they really seem to be responding to the self-pacing, the independence they have. And particularly, those who need more time to grasp new concepts like the idea that no one has to know how many times they watch a video. No one has to see them when they are struggling. They can be actually listening to something and then working with their teacher privately back in the classroom on the homework. Then they really like the idea that, as they say, they can rewind the teacher. When there is more time in class, because the lessons have been sent home, there's a lot more engagement, which is a lot more interesting, because students like the hands-on activity.

One teacher reported that before she flipped she realized that she was spending 90% of her class time in delivering content; lecturing in some form or another. And 10% of her time on hands-on activities. Then once she started sending her lessons home in the flipped lessons, she realized that this whole concept was flipped. She was spending, in the classroom, 90% of her time on hands-on activities and really only about 10% of classroom time with a direct instruction. So students respond to this. Students find this really powerful. Most of them like having one-to-one time with teachers. Not all though. You know, they can't hide in the background. There's much more activity going on in the classroom. It can be noisy. It can be chaotic. Not all students respond to that, but in general, this is something that students seem to find really powerful. And they don't have to miss the lesson.

This is really how flipping started, with Aaron Sams and Jonathon Burgmann in Colorado. They were physics teachers and chemistry teachers. They found that their high school students were missing so many of their classes 'cause they were having to leave early for athletic events in a rural community. They would have to come back in and figure out how to get the lessons. So Aaron and Jonathon started putting their lessons on video, just their PowerPoint, and they discovered that their students were not only watching them, but the students who didn't miss the class were saying, "Would it be possible for me to look at that video?" And they realized, wow, for students asking if they could see more lecture, that was pretty powerful.

So, the idea that you don't have to worry about missing lessons on snow days, when people are out sick, when there are doctor's appointments, when there are all the different kinds of interruptions in the class day. That those lessons can still be sent. Now, of course, it still means that when kids are gone, they're gonna miss the hands-on activity, they're gonna miss all that, maybe it's the lab work, maybe it's the discussion, so it's not a cure-all, but it does mean that they don't have to be behind in terms of the content and the information. This one student at Byron said, "I like being able to rewind the lessons and pause them. "It gave me more time to think about things "and work through them without being rushed. "I like the fact that I can re-watch "them if I have questions. "And I like being able to do my homework in class "because then I can ask questions as I go along. "It also takes less time when I have help right away "instead of struggling through it on my own." I think that's a pretty powerful message of a student's view.

Which leads us to what parents think. That's my number seven in the top 10. For parents this can be a whole interesting, new window into their student's classrooms. How many times have you said to your kids when they come home, "What'd you do in school today?" "I don't know." "What did you learn?" "I don't know." Well, if this parent happens to watch the video with their student, they can see what's being taught. They can appreciate what is perhaps the common core. They can see what those concepts are about, that might be a different way than they were taught when they were in school. So for parents, the idea of watching lessons with their children or students really is a whole new opportunity.

Now many students may not need this, but younger students it's really recommended that the parents watch the lessons with them. Then parents are invited to provide feedback to the teachers. Now this again can be a little bit of a challenge for some teachers. One math teacher told me that she was getting a lot of feedback from a parent who was a professional mathematician, but she found out that he really liked the way she was teaching, and it was a nice pat on the back for her. But again, the teaching becomes visible. It becomes visible for parents. It becomes visible for them to understand what the concepts are that their students are becoming responsible for. And what's really nice is that when they do the homework, the assignments, the reinforcing activities in the classroom, that means that the parents don't have to sit and do the homework with the students. If they didn't remember geometry, it's okay. It's the expert, the teacher, who can work with the student if the student has problems. The teacher can work with that student during the class time.

So all these reasons tend to kind of blend together, which I think is what makes it interesting. Well what about the technology? I think one of the things that makes this powerful now is that there is technology in schools. Schools have made huge investments in technology, as have individuals and parents. But the reality is that many students have this technology and they can bring the technology into the classroom. Many schools are using the BYOD, bring your own device approach and letting their students bring in their machines. That same national survey, the Speak Up Survey of 2014, found that 28% of high school students say that they use their own mobile devices for learning in school.

And 47% of teachers say their students have regular access to mobile devices in their classroom. Well those numbers are pretty good, but there is a question about that. What about those who don't have the technology? Because in fact one in three households still do not subscribe to broadband, even though seven in 10 teachers assign homework that requires their students to have access to the internet. So it calls for creative solutions on teachers' part. The first thing that all teachers say they should do, if they're going to be flipping, is do a survey of the parent to ask what technologies they have in the home, what technologies they will make available to their students, what their personal needs are in terms of those technologies because it may be that there's just one computer at home and all the family has to share it.

So teachers need to know what the technology is available to the student and then they create workarounds. They do a variety of things where they can send the material home on CDs, have the kids work in the library or classroom, send home laptops. But unless you're gonna have equal access for the students, it's not gonna be an approach that's gonna be working. I see a question from Ana Maria, which is, "The captioning of videos is required, but also expensive. "What approach do you recommend "educators use to caption their videos?" You know, that's a technological issue that I'm not that familiar with, but it's one of the kinds of things that the teachers on the social networks have conversations about on a regular basis.

I'm gonna direct you to some of those social networks at the end for resources that teachers might recommend for captioning videos. I'm sure there are tools. I'm not an expert on what they are. But what we are finding is that there's a variety of resources now, many of which are low cost or free. But whether captioning falls into that, I'm not that familiar. But again, there are multiple resources and technological support in schools now. That was not the case 10, five years ago. I think what's also happening is that teachers and their technology specialists are working closely together to answer some of these questions. Tiffany wanted to know, "For students "not in the classroom on the day "of labs or direct instructions, "would it be good to send home "for these students to try at home?" That's an interesting question.

Sometimes teachers do video their lab activities and show that because, in fact, there are a lot of things that might pass a student by. The student might not see in a lab. Maybe their little lab group missed a point, or maybe they were too far back. So yeah, I think that's a really, a number of teachers are videoing their labs or some kind of class instruction activity that students can then look at as their follow-up work or as a preview to the lab work perhaps, so they get an idea ahead of time. The teachers are incredibly flexible with this and incredibly creative, which is what I find so exciting about this is how teachers look at their own personal instruction and say, "How can I be sure my students "are understanding this better? "What can I do differently? "How can I stretch the instructional time?" And that's why they think about, okay, maybe I could take a video of this lab as we do it and have the students watch it afterwards and analyze it again as homework. That would be powerful.

So I'm just about at number nine here, as Dave would say. His things get silly at the end. Mine are not silly, I'm afraid. 21st century skills, I just wanted to put that in because you know here we are in 2015 and we're still talking about 21st century skills. But, in fact, it's really important for students to be able to be comfortable using technology in ways that is the way technology is used in the real world. That happens with flipped classroom. It's important for them to be collaborating for figuring out how to evaluate information. And basically take charge of their own learning. These are things that really, you know they used to be called 21st century skills. They're just core learning skills but they become a more natural part of what's going on in the classroom today. So, we wanted to put that in.

Is flipping the future of education? Well, I kind of leave that up to you because you all are the educators. You are finding what works best in your schools, in your classrooms. But I think based on the growth of the teachers using technologies for instruction, I think based on the excitement that we're seeing around this time shifting, which happens at all levels of education now, I think based on the fact that technologies are more powerful and are more available, and I think based on the fact that teachers are really getting excited about working with each other around this kind of new concept, this can be really a powerful track for education, if you will.

I think 10 years from now, it will really look very normal. It will really seem to be just a natural way of thinking about how the school day is extended. But, perhaps not. Maybe we could have a little vote here. Going back to our raising of the hand up here on the icon. How many of you think that flipping will be a much more mainstream part of education in the future? If you agree. And our numbers are about what they were. Yep, they're moving up. It's hard, you know... I think what happens with technology is it seems far out there. Then we try it and then we get support and then we get frustrated and then we get more support and then it becomes, again, kind of the way we live.

I remember being at a meeting five, 10 years ago when they said, "How many people have smartphones?" And there was a scattering of hands. Now you'd be in meeting and everybody's looking at their smartphones, much less having them. So I think you all are folks who are thinking about uses of technology in powerful ways. I think in terms of working with students with disabilities, technologies have always been a powerful tool. I think the technologies that make it possible to do flipped lessons, flipped teaching with students are very much the same technologies that are in mainstream education. They're not specialized for special learners, so that's another reason why I think they'll be more available for teachers to use them. So that's where I put my vote. I would say that my vote would be yes, this is gonna be something we see as more of a mainstream part of education in the future. I think we'll see if there's any more questions here. I'd be happy to take them. Jackie Tess. Hello, Jackie.

- [Voiceover] Hi, Kathleen.

- [Voiceover] Back to the days of Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. "Did I imagine we'd be at this point in 2015?" No. It's interesting because this is, Jackie and I go way back. For many, many years. What she's referring to is I did studies for Congress back in the early '90s on the future of computers in education. And the opportunities of the world wide web, as we called it then, for education. But most of what we were talking about at that point was how you use technology during the class time. I think what's interesting with flipping is that now this whole idea of instructional time is more porous. That we think differently about how our time to learn is not just set by a 9:00 to 3:00 classroom hours. It doesn't necessarily mean that students have more time at home doing homework, although I think that can be an issue if every teacher has flipped lessons that students are watching.

But I think what is different is that teachers are finding the opportunities to use their class time differently because they can send that home. So, did I realize we'd be at this point? I don't think so. I don't think I had the foresight to understand where the technology would be taking us. Thank you. As far as your work with, I'm wondering were any of you out there, if you want to raise your hand, if you're working with students with attention deficit issues. Would you raise your hand up there through the point there? And I'm wondering as a grandparent with a grandchild who's got some issues with that. How he could do better. Because I think when he's in the classroom, he is so distracted by so much that's going on that a lot of times the class lessons just, just you know, he's missing them.

And I would love to see his teachers sending some of those lessons home for him to look at with his folks, on his own time without the embarrassment of having to rewind them. He can do that in private. And really having that chance to go deeper and get what he might have missed when he was in a classroom full of distractions. It's just a thought, you know one of the things I've been thinking about personally. Wondering if there are any of you who have any experience with that that you wanted to share. Maybe that's not something we have anybody engaged in. Any other things you would like to share with each other? What I would like to do is just go, although I don't seem to be going forward here, by the way. I wanted to go to the resources. Okay.

I had mentioned that I'm just giving you a tip of the iceberg here. There's an incredible network of educators out there who are doing this work. Probably the big, the Flipped Learning Network, Flipped Learning Institute, the Twitter hashtag, EdWeb has had a number of very interesting webinars on flipping. A recent one there that I've listed is Free Resources For Your Flipped Classroom. You can join EdWeb and you could join that community and listen to, let's see the webinar was about a week or two ago. But each one of these when you go to them, you know it's just kinda nested. The deeper you go, the more resources you're gonna find. Among them are, a link here I have, and this will be posted for you all and these are live links. So hopefully when you download it you can access each of these.

Teacher Tested Tools for the Flipped Classroom. Apps and Websites. 10 Best Tools. Education Technology and Mobile Learning. I didn't want to be listing tools and products because A, they change fast. B, some are free, some are at cost. I think what's useful is both seeing what other teachers have said and going through and finding some of these that work for your particular needs. There's lots of blogs. Lots of interesting videos. I cited a couple, three here that I found interesting. Julie Schell is at Harvard. She has a lot of very helpful information I think about peer instruction. It's a form of mastery learning where students are teaching each other and they're moving forward by helping each other with concepts. It's an approach that Eric Mazur at Harvard has been doing with his students in physics classes in Harvard. 'Cause he found that students were not really understanding the physics concepts.

Well, what he made them do is watch some of the lecture at home. Then he would bring in a particular problem for them to do at the beginning of class on their own. Then they would be assigned to defend their solution with a couple of the students sitting around them. Then he would wander around a huge lecture hall and listen to the conversations where they were defending their physics solutions. He was able to start to understand their misconceptions. The things that students were stumbling over. They were also, you know as you have to teach others, you realize what you know and don't know and how well you know it. So he developed this whole concept of peer instruction, which Julie Schell is writing about at her blog, which a lot of educators who are flipping their instruction are doing as a way of having their students learn with and from each other.

Another learning approach is Ramsey Musallam's Cycles of Learning, which I think is fascinating. I recommend that to you. Then I just put down this link to an educator in China who has this video on YouTube about why she's flipping her classroom. So, it's happening everywhere. It's all around. Yep, and then I've got, these are just in (speaking indistinctly) areas. Driscoll has a lot of really good videos, a lot of good lessons that he's happy to share. Ken Halla in world history. These folks are so creative. They've got so many wonderful resources. The folks at Byron High School. If you go to that link, it will take you to some of their mathematics work that they've been doing. I guess we gotta go... Yep, I wanted to go back one more I think.

Two more. Yeah, high school English. Oops, next one. Cheryl Morris and Andrew Thomasson. They're folks, Cheryl's in California, Andrew is in North Carolina and they team teach flipped classes in English. Their stuff is fascinating, what they've got. I recommend that. In language, this is the woman I feature in my book. 8th Grade Biology, Hassan Wilson up in New York. These are all folks that I have little vignettes about in my book if you're interested because I just think that their work is so powerful and so creative. Yep, Ken Halla is still writing, so using smartphones. Absolutely. Then at the end, I think that's the last one that we're concluding, was good old fashioned books, right. Troy, who I mentioned, Troy Cockrum, at the beginning of this session. Flipping Your English Class, I think it's a great book. Then two books by Jonathon Bergmann and Aaron Sams are available through ISTE. Flipped Learning, which is the latest one. And the original one, Flip Your Classroom. Then, of course, I got to have a plug for my book, 'cause I think that this will be an opportunity to go a little deeper in what we've been talking about here today. But what I wanted to find was a community of special educators who are flipping the classroom. I didn't come up with that, but I'm wondering if some of you might be aware of that, or if so if you could share that information with me, I would love to send it out and make that part of my resource page because I think it's such a powerful opportunity for those of you working with students with disabilities. Any other questions? Otherwise, I think we're getting close to our time. I do thank you for your interest.

- [Voiceover] Kathleen, I'd like to thank you again for joining us today and sharing all these resources with everybody that's on the call. It was really wonderful to listen to your presentation. I can't wait to actually dive down into more of these resources. I'd like to direct everyone's attention also to the PowerPoint is available. You can see it in the web sharing platform. If you click, it says files. If you click on the link right there, you can then download the file right out of the web sharing platform. And, of course, it will be also in the CTD Resource Library if you don't download it immediately and want to come back and dig into these resources that Kathleen has shared with us today. Just as a last housekeeping piece, we would appreciate it if you could click on the link to take the survey of the event. It helps us to be able to continue to improve the process and the logistics surrounding the events. Also, it helps us to be able to know future topics and how to target the events to make sure that we're meeting the needs of all of our users. And follow us on Twitter. Check us out in YouTube, and subscribe for our newsletter, and get some email updates from us. Thank you, Kathleen.

- [Voiceover] Thank you. My pleasure.